By Constance Cary Harrison

THE only association I have with my old home in Virginia that is not one of unmixed happiness relates to the time immediately succeeding the execution of John Brown at Charlestown. Our homestead was in Fairfax County, at some distance from the theater of that tragic episode; and, belonging as we did to a family among the first in the State to manumit slaves, - our grandfather having set free those that came to him by inheritance, and the people who served us being hired from their owners and remaining in our employ through years of kindliest relations, – there seemed to be no especial reason for us to share in the apprehension of an uprising of the blacks. But there was the fear - unspoken, or pooh-poohed at by the men who were mouth-pieces for our community - dark boding, oppressive, and altogether hateful. I can remember taking it to bed with me at night, and awaking suddenly oftentimes to confront it through a vigil of nervous terror, of which it never occurred to me to speak to any one. The notes of whip-poor-wills in the sweet-gum swamp near the stable, the mutterings of a distant thunder-storm, even the rustle of the night wind in the oaks that shaded my window, filled me with nameless dread. In the daytime it seemed impossible to associate suspicion with those familiar tawny or sable faces that surrounded us. We had seen them for so many years smiling or saddening with the family joys or sorrows; they were so guileless, so patient, so satisfied. What subtle influence was at work that should transform them into tigers thirsting for our blood The idea was preposterous. But when evening came again, and with it the hour when the colored people (who in summer and autumn weather kept astir half the night) assembled themselves together for dance or prayer meeting, the ghost that refused to be laid was again at one's elbow. Rusty bolts were drawn and rusty fire-arms loaded. A watch was set where never before had eye or car been lent to such a service. In short, peace had flown from the borders of Virginia.

Although the newspapers were full of secession talk and the matter was eagerly discussed at our tables, I cannot remember that, as late as Christmas time of the year 1860, coming events had cast any definite shadow on our homes. The people in our neighborhood, of one opinion with their dear and honored friend, Colonel Robert E. Lee, of Arlington, were slow to accept the startling suggestion of disruption of the Union. At any rate, we enjoyed the usual holiday gathering of kinsfolk in the usual fashion. The old Vaucluse house, known for many years past as a center of cheerful hospitality in the county, threw wide open its doors to receive all the members who could be gathered there of a large family circle. The woods about were despoiled of

holly and spruce, pine and cedar, to deck the walls and wreathe the picture frames. On Christmas Eve we had a grand rally of youths and boys belonging to the "clan," as they loved to call it to roll in a yule log, which was deposited upon a glowing bed of coals in the big "red-parlor" fire-place, and sit about it afterward, welcoming the Christmas in with goblets of egg-nog and apple-toddy.

"Where shall we be a year hence" some one asked at a pause in the merry chat; and, in the brief silence that followed, arose a sudden spectral thought of war. All felt its presence; no one cared to speak first of its grim possibilities.

On Christmas Eve of the following year the old house lay in ruins, a sacrifice by Union troops to military necessity; the forest giants that kept watch around her walls had been cut down and made to serve as breastworks for a fort erected on the Vaucluse property as part of the defenses of Washington. Of the young men and boys who took part in that holiday festivity, all were in the active service of the South, one of them, alas! soon to fall under a rain of shot and shell beside his gun at Fredericksburg; the youngest of the number had left his mother's knee to fight at Manassas, and found himself, before the year was out, a midshipman aboard the Confederate steamer Nashville, on her cruise in distant seas!

My first vivid impression of war-days was during a ramble in the neighboring woods one Sunday afternoon in spring, when the young people in a happy band set out in search of wild flowers. Pink honeysuckles, blue lupine, beds of fairy flax, anemones, and ferns in abundance sprung under the canopy of young leaves on the forest boughs, and the air was full of the song of birds and the music of running waters. We knew every mossy path far and near in those woods every tree had been watched and cherished by those who went before us, and dearer than any other spot on earth was our tranquil, sweet Vaucluse. Suddenly the shrill whistle of a locomotive struck the ear, an unwonted sound on Sunday. "Do you know what that means I said one of the older cousins who accompanied the party. "It is the special train carrying Alexandria volunteers to Manassas, and to-morrow I shall follow with my Company." Silence fell upon our little band. A cloud seemed to come between us and the sun. It was the beginning of the end too soon to come.

The story of one broken circle is the story of another at the outset of such a war. Before the week was over the scattering of our household, which no one then believed to be more than temporary, had begun. Living as we did upon ground likely to be in the track of armies gathering to confront each other, it was deemed advisable to send the children and young girls into a place more remote from chances of danger. Some weeks later the heads of the household, two widowed sisters whose sons were at Manassas, drove away from their home in their carriage at early morning, having spent the

previous night in company with a half-grown lad digging in the cellar hasty graves for the internment of two boxes of old English silver-ware, heirlooms in the family, for which there was no time to provide otherwise. Although the enemy were long encamped immediately above it after the house was burnt the following year, this silver was found there when the war had ended; it was lying loose in the earth, the boxes having rotted away.

The point at which our family reunited within the Confederate lines was Bristoe, the Station next beyond Manassas, a cheerless railway inn; a part of the premises was used as a country grocery store; and there quarters were secured for us with a view to being near the army. By this time all our kith and kin of fighting age had joined the volunteers. One cannot picture accommodations more forlorn than these eagerly taken for us and for other families attracted to Bristoe by the same powerful magnet. The summer sun poured its burning rays upon whitewashed walls unshaded by a tree. Our bedrooms were almost uninhabitable by day or night, our fare the plainest. From the windows we beheld only a flat, uncultivated country, crossed by red-clay roads, then ankle-deep in dust. We learned to look for all excitement to the glittering lines of railway track, along which continually thundered trains bound to and from the front. It was impossible to allow such a train to pass without running out upon the platform to salute it, for in this way we greeted many an old friend or relative buttoned up in the smart gray uniform, speeding with high hope to the scene of coming conflict. Such shouts as went up from sturdy throats while we stood waving hands, handkerchiefs, or the rough woolen garments we were at work upon! Then fairly awoke the spirit that made of Southern women the inspiration of Southern men throughout the war. Most of the young fellows we knew and were cheering onward wore the uniform of privates, and for the right to wear it had left homes of ease and luxury. To such we gave our best homage and from that time forth the youth who was lukewarm in the cause or unambitious of military glory fared uncomfortably in the presence of the average Confederate maiden.

Thanks to our own carriage, we were able during those rallying days of June to drive frequently to visit "the boys" in camp, timing the expeditions to include battalion drill and dress parade, and taking tea afterward in the different tents. Then were the gala days of war, and our proud hosts hastened to produce home dainties dispatched from the far-away plantations

tears and blessings interspersed amid the packing, we were sure; though I have seen a pretty girl persist in declining other fare, to make her meal upon raw biscuit and huckleberry pie compounded by the bright-eyed amateur cook of a well-beloved mess. Feminine heroism could no farther go.

And so the days wore on until the 17th of July, when a rumor from the front sent an electric shock through our circle. The enemy were moving forward! On the morning of the 15th those who had been able to sleep at all awoke early to listen for the first guns of the engagement of Blackburn's Ford. Deserted as the women in Bristoe were by every male creature old enough to gather news, there was, for us, no way of knowing the progress of events during the long, long day of waiting, of watching, of weeping, of praying of rushing out upon the railway track to walk as far as we dared in the direction whence came that intolerable booming of artillery. The cloud of dun smoke arising over Manassas became heavier in volume as the day progressed. Still, not a word of tidings, till toward afternoon there came limping up a single, very dirty, soldier with his arm in a sling. What a heavensend he was, if only as an escape-valve for our pent-up sympathies! We seized him, we washed him, we cried over him, we glorified him until the man was fairly bewildered. Our best endeavors could only develop a pin-scratch of a wound on his right hand; but when our hero had laid in a substantial meal of bread and meat, we plied him with trembling questions, each asking news

of some staff or regiment or company. It has since occurred to me that he was a humorist in disguise. His invariable reply, as he looked from one to the other of his satellites, was: "The Virginia, marm? Why, of coase. They warn't no two ways o'thinkin' 'bout that arreg'ment. They just kivered tharselves with glory!"

A little later two wagonloads of slightly wounded claimed our care, and with them came authentic news of the day. Most of us received notes on paper torn from a soldier's pocket-book and grimed with gunpowder, containing assurance of the safety of our own. At nightfall a train carrying more wounded to the hospitals at Culpeper made a halt at Bristoe and, preceded by men holding lanterns, we went in among the stretchers with milk, food, and water to the sufferers. One of the first discoveries I made, bending over in that fitful light, was a young officer whom I knew to be a special object of solicitude with one of my comrades in the search; but he was badly hurt, and neither he nor she knew the other was near until the train had moved on. The next day, and the next, were full of burning excitement over the impending general engagement, which people then said would decide the fate of the young Confederacy. Fresh troops came by with every train, and we lived only to turn from one scene to another of welcome and farewell. On Saturday evening arrived a message from General Beauregard, saying that early on Sunday an engine and car would be put at our disposal, to take us to some point more remote from danger. We looked at one another, and, tacitly agreeing the gallant general had sent not an order but a suggestion, declined his kind proposal.

Another unspeakably long day, full of the straining anguish of suspense. Dawning bright and fair, it closed under a sky darkened by cannon-smoke. The roar of guns seemed never to cease. First, a long sullen boom; then a sharper rattling fire, painfully distinct; then stragglers from the field, with varying rumors; at last, the news of victory; and, as before, the wounded to force our numbed faculties into service. One of our group, the mother of

an only son barely fifteen years of age, heard that her boy, after being in action all the early part of the day, had through sheer fatigue fallen asleep upon the ground, where he was found resting peacefully amidst the roar of the guns.

A few days later we rode over the field. The trampled grass had begun to spring again, and wild flowers were blooming around carelessly made graves. From one of these imperfect mounds of clay I saw a hand extended; and when, years afterward, I visited the tomb of Rousseau beneath the Pantheon in Paris, where a sculptured hand bearing a torch protrudes from the sarcophagus, I thought of that mournful spectacle upon the field of Manassas. Fences were everywhere thrown down; the undergrowth of the woods was riddled with shot; here and there we came upon spiked guns, disabled gun-carriages, cannon-balls, blood-stained blankets, and dead horses. We were glad enough to turn away and gallop homeward.

With August heats and lack of water, Bristoe was forsaken for quarters near Culpeper, where my mother went into the soldiers' barracks, sharing soldiers' accommodations, to nurse the wounded. In September quite a party of us, upon invitation, visited the different headquarters. We stopped overnight at Manassas, five ladies, sleeping upon a couch made of rolls of cartridge-flannel, in a tent guarded by a faithful sentry. I remember the comical effect of the five bird-cages (of a kind without which no self-respecting young woman of that day would present herself in public) suspended upon a line running across the upper part of our tent, after we had reluctantly removed them in order to adjust ourselves for repose. Our progress during that memorable visit was royal; an ambulance with a picked troop of cavalrymen had been placed at our service, and the convoy was "personally conducted" by a pleasing variety of distinguished officers. It was at this time, after a supper at the headquarters of the "Maryland line" at Fairfax, that the afterward universal war-song, "My Maryland!" was put afloat upon the tide of army favor. We were sitting outside a tent in the warm starlight of an early autumn night, when music was proposed. At once we struck up Randall's verses to the tune of the old college song, "Lauriger Horatius," - a young lady of the party, Jennie Cary, of Baltimore, having recently set them to this music before leaving home to share the fortunes of the Confederacy. All joined in the ringing chorus; and, when we finished, a burst of applause came from some soldiers listening in the darkness behind a belt of trees. Next day the melody was hummed far and near through the camps, and in due time it had gained the place of favorite song in the army. Other songs sung that evening, which afterward had a great vogue, were one beginning "By blue Patapsco's billowy dash," and " The years glide slowly by, Lorena."

Another incident of note during the autumn of '61, was that to my cousins, Hetty and Jennie Cary, and to me was intrusted the making of the first three battle-flags of the Confederacy. They were jaunty squares of scarlet crossed with dark blue edged with white, the cross bearing stars to indicate the number of the seceded States. We set our best stitches upon them, edged them with golden fringes, and, when they were finished, dispatched one to Johnston, another to Beauregard, and the third to Earl Van Dorn, then

commanding infantry at Manassas. The banners were received with all possible enthusiasm; were toasted, feted, and cheered abundantly. After two years, when Van Dorn had been killed in Tennessee, mine came back to me, tattered and storm-stained from long and honorable service in the field. But it was only a little while after it had been bestowed that there arrived one day at our lodgings in Culpeper a huge, bashful Mississippi scout, - one of the most daring in the army, -with the frame of a Hercules and the face of a child. He had been bidden to come there by his general, he said, to ask, if I would not give him an order to fetch some cherished object from my dear old home- something that would prove to me "how much they thought of the maker of that flag!" A week later I was the astonished recipient of a lamented bit of finery left "within the lines," a wrap, brought to us by Dillon himself, with a beaming face. Mounted on a load of fire-wood, he had gone through the Union pickets, and while peddling poultry had presented himself at the house of my uncle, Dr. Fairfax, in Alexandria, whence he carried off his prize in triumph, with a letter in its folds telling us how relatives left behind longed to be sharing the joys and sorrows of those at large in the Confederacy.

Historic Norfolk and Virginia Beach Photo Collection


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Terry McAuliffe’s Record On Race Gets A Second Look In Virginia Governor's Race

In May 2015, Gov. Terry McAuliffe (D) vetoed a bipartisan bill that would have restricted how long police departments in Virginia could store data collected from license plate readers.

McAuliffe had plenty of reasons for blocking the bill’s passage. Law enforcement leaders in the state pointed to a few high-profile cases in which license plate information helped them prosecute crimes long after the data was collected. And though McAuliffe wanted a 60-day limit on the storage, the state legislature refused to budge from its insistence that the data storage last just a week.

But the bill’s proponents blamed McAuliffe for indulging police talking points and depriving Virginia of the chance to be a national leader on the issue of mass surveillance.

In retrospect, the bill’s liberal supporters believe that it would have reduced police discrimination against Black Virginians because of how racism leads to selective enforcement of the law. Restricting new forms of surveillance technology, such as facial recognition tools, is now a major focus of Black civil rights activists concerned about police bias.

Claire Gastañaga, the executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Virginia, was especially dismayed by a conversation she said she had with McAuliffe after he vetoed the bill.

“He looked me in the eye and said, ‘Claire, you just need to know, I’m always going to side with the police,’” Gastañaga told HuffPost.

The remark is nearly identical to what McAuliffe told the press at the time.

Through a spokesperson, McAuliffe “adamantly” denied ever saying that to Gastañaga. Although their disagreement over surveillance technology occurred in 2015, the two Virginians have been political adversaries ever since McAuliffe publicly attacked Gastañaga for suing to allow neo-Nazis to march in downtown Charlottesville in 2017. (McAuliffe also had reason to take attention from his own handling of the violence in Charlottesville, which was even criticized in an independent report about the rally that the city had commissioned itself.)

Racial justice and criminal justice reform ― including McAuliffe’s record as governor ― are now central issues in the Democratic primary for governor, set for June 8.

In less than a decade, Virginia has gone from a purple state where Republicans dominated the General Assembly and often won the governorship to a blue state where Democrats exercise unified control.

It is also a state where 1 in 5 residents ― and more than 1 in 4 Democratic primary voters ― is Black. Black elected officials and activists and their allies are eager to continue advancing priorities like the expansion of voting rights and workers’ rights, creating a less racially biased and more compassionate criminal justice system, establishing accountability for police killings and deaths in custody, and reforming the state’s jail and prison system.

But Black Virginians diverge on how best to accomplish these goals in the context of a competitive Democratic primary.

McAuliffe, who, like all Virginia chief executives, was limited by law from serving consecutive terms, announced plans to run for a second term after three Black candidates had already announced their bids. If elected, either former Del. Jennifer Carroll Foy or state Sen. Jennifer McClellan, who jumped in the race months earlier, would be the country’s first Black woman to govern a state and Virginia’s first woman governor of any race. (Lt. Gov. Justin Fairfax, who is also Black and running for governor, is mired in controversy over two sexual assault allegations that he denies.)

“The question for a lot of Virginians needs to be: Given the changing nature of where we are, is gubernatorial leadership from Terry McAuliffe going to move us on the pace that we need to? Or will either of the Jennifers be better choices there?” said Christian Dorsey, a Black member of the Arlington County Board, who is undecided in the race.

Yet McAuliffe is widely considered the front-runner and has the most endorsements from Black elected officials in the state by far.

Black Virginians who support McAuliffe praise his historic restoration of the voting rights of 173,000 former felons and a number of other achievements that particularly benefited Black Virginians.

These McAuliffe backers also remember a time when Virginia’s status as a blue state was less secure and see him as the surest bet to both retain the party’s hold on the governorship and navigate legislation through the byzantines halls of the state Capitol in Richmond.

“He has delivered before and will deliver again,” said J.J. Minor, a community activist and former chairman of the Richmond City Democratic Committee. “As a matter of fact, Terry McAuliffe ― I would say, he has some soul in him, in my opinion.”

McAuliffe knows how critical Black support is to his success in the Democratic primary and later in the general election. He announced his campaign in December flanked by senior Black elected officials outside a Richmond elementary school named for the city’s first Black school board chair.

McAuliffe’s “historic actions on criminal justice reform, education, and economic equity, and his bold plans to create a more equitable future have earned him the support of hundreds of leaders from across the Commonwealth, including deep and overwhelming support from more than 100 Black leaders,” McAuliffe campaign manager Chris Bolling said in a statement. “Voters know and trust these respected leaders and Terry’s ground-breaking criminal justice reform record more than a few cherry-picked misleading attacks.”

McAuliffe’s progressive critics, by contrast, see him as a cautious, triangulating Democrat befitting a bygone era. Some Black Virginians are offended by his decision to run and potentially block a Black candidate from the top post at a time when the entire country ― not least the state that was once home to the capital of the Confederacy ― is undergoing a reckoning with its history of anti-Black racism.

“We put [McAuliffe] in there the first time. He got a lot of Black support. So practice what you preach,” said Tilly Blanding, a Fairfax County Democratic activist backing Fairfax. “If he really cared about Black people, he could have just endorsed one of them.”

In the case of McClellan’s candidacy, her barrier-breaking identity as a Black woman is even more glaring, since McClellan, an attorney for Verizon and a seasoned lawmaker, is less distinct from McAuliffe on ideological grounds.

“She would bring a different perspective because of lived experiences,” said Del. Jeff Bourne, a Richmond Democrat and one of two Black state lawmakers backing McClellan. “Those lived experiences that Jenn has have grounded her in a way that not many people have had.”

Backers of Carroll Foy, who has emerged as the progressive favorite in the race, say the June 8 primary is an opportunity to press Democrats’ advantage in the state, transforming it from not just a Democratic bastion but a decidedly liberal and anti-racist one as well.

Like Tom Perriello, the progressive candidate who unsuccessfully ran for the Democratic gubernatorial nomination against Ralph Northam in 2017, these progressives ― of all races ― want the chance to replace the “Virginia Way” ― a euphemism for the state’s tradition of clubby, bipartisan and corporate-friendly politics ― with a more populist, multiracial paradigm.

“The Virginia Way was designed to ensure that people with money and power stayed with money and power,” said Kenya Gibson, a Black member of the Richmond school board who is supporting Carroll Foy. “It’s incredible that we have a candidate who has really done the work and embodies, in a very real way, leadership that is truly representing the people.”

Stumbles On The Road To Richmond

In February 2001, as McAuliffe sought the chairmanship of the Democratic National Committee, a dust-up with a Black DNC delegate from Alabama briefly threatened his path to power.

During a discussion of his views on racial profiling, McAuliffe reportedly said that he didn’t believe police should profile “colored people,” according to then-Alabama state Rep. Alvin Holmes (D).

McAuliffe said that he remembered saying “people of color,” and if he hadn’t, it’s what he meant to say. But Holmes refused to accept the explanation. He called on McAuliffe to either apologize to the entire DNC membership or withdraw from the race. (McAuliffe proceeded with his bid and won easily.)

The dispute took place in the context of a larger battle for Black influence within the DNC. Maynard Jackson, the first Black man elected mayor of Atlanta, had gotten in the race so that McAuliffe would not romp to victory uncontested. Jackson’s bid reflected the frustrations of some Black members of Congress that McAuliffe and other party officials had not consulted them before making his candidacy a virtual fait accompli.

In a bit of insider deal-making, for which McAuliffe had already become known as a Clinton confidant and prodigious fundraiser, he gave Jackson an official post at the DNC in exchange for Jackson’s last-minute withdrawal and endorsement.

“One of the things that my candidacy delivered: that Black voters would never be taken advantage of again,” Jackson told the Memphis-area Tri-State Defender. “Almost every Black Democrat that I have ever met has said that they resent being taken for granted by our party.”

When McAuliffe ran for governor for a second time in 2013, he took pains to ensure that Black voters would not feel overlooked the way Jackson and his allies had.

His campaign targeted 300,000 Black voters with radio and TV ads, and got 350 Black-owned businesses to display placards with McAuliffe’s name alongside Obama’s, Politico reported.

McAuliffe ultimately prevailed against Republican Ken Cuccinelli by a 2.5-percentage-point margin, thanks in no small part to Black Virginians. Black turnout in the state reached the same level as 2012, when Obama was on the ballot.

“If you’re not turning out African American voters, you’re done,” said Ben Tribbett, a Democratic consultant in Virginia, who is neutral in the race. “The key piece, before you start anything else, is you have to have enthusiasm in the Black community.”

Historic Gains During Divided Government

McAuliffe has plenty of accomplishments he can point to as evidence that he fought for Black civil rights and civil liberties overall. He oversaw these gains, his allies note, even though he lacked the Democratic control of the state legislature that has enabled his successor, Northam, to sign more sweeping bills into law.

Until 2018, Republicans enjoyed a nearly two-thirds majority in the state House of Delegates.

“It’s very easy to look back with rose-colored glasses,” said state Sen. Scott Surovell (D), a trial attorney and criminal justice reformer, who is neutral in the gubernatorial primary. “Terry was very assertive and very aggressive toward the Republicans majorities in the House and the Senate.”

In his first year in office, McAuliffe signed a bill expanding access to psychiatric facilities for Virginians experiencing a mental health emergency.

The following year, McAuliffe issued an executive order “banning the box” in state government hiring, effectively prohibiting the Virginia government from requiring job applicants to disclose arrests. (The order did not affect private-sector or local government hiring practices.)

He also made a point of allocating additional state funding for mental health treatment in the state’s correctional facilities and probation programs, as well as for programs for convicted criminals returning to society.

And after the starvation death of Jamycheal Mitchell, a mentally ill young Black man in a regional jail in 2015, McAuliffe pushed for and signed a May 2017 law strengthening state oversight of local and regional jails.

When it comes to policing, McAuliffe lacked a signature bill or executive order of the kind that Northam signed into law following the Minneapolis police killing of George Floyd last May.

But McAuliffe was responsive to requests for assistance from local leaders, according to Joe Dillard, an area director for the Hampton Roads NAACP. Dillard, who is also a lobbyist for public transportation authorities, said McAuliffe was instrumental in helping the city of Norfolk secure body cameras for its police force.

“If he tells you he’s going to do something, he’s going to do it,” Dillard said.

McAuliffe’s greatest civil rights legacy by far, however, is his restoration of voting rights for 173,000 former felons.

Virginia is now one of just two states to bar all ex-felons from voting for the rest of their lives. A host of civil rights and activist groups have long decried the law for depriving people of a second chance to participate in society and for discriminating against the state’s Black population, which makes up a disproportionate share of the state’s felons.

In May 2016, McAuliffe gave voting rights back to more than 200,000 ex-felons with a single executive order. At the time, editorial boards across the state wagged their fingers at McAuliffe, and Republicans successfully challenged the maneuver in the state Supreme Court.

Undeterred, McAuliffe moved to restore the ex-felons’ rights by individually re-enfranchising each Virginian rather than relying on a blanket order. The moves were far more dramatic than anything accomplished by his immediate Democratic predecessors, current U.S. Sens. Tim Kaine and Mark Warner.

Del. Don Scott (D) of Portsmouth, who regained his law license after serving time in prison, connects McAuliffe’s effort to restore voting rights with his support for Scott’s career at a time when Scott believes society saw him as a “pariah.”

Scott, who is Black, remembers McAuliffe endorsing his candidacy for delegate in 2019 and contributing $5,000 to his campaign at a time when other community leaders were wary of his criminal record.

“Who can embrace those people who are considered to be outsiders, who are considered to be untouchables, who other people don’t want to deal with because they think they’re irredeemable?” Scott said. “Terry has done that for me personally and for thousands of other people.”

In some ways, the divide among Black Democrats regarding McAuliffe resembles the 2020 Democratic presidential primary.

While younger Black Democrats were more open to progressive contenders like Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.), older Black Democrats from more conservative regions helped deliver the nomination to Joe Biden. For this older group of voters, relationships and trust built over years of collaboration took precedence over liberal concerns about Biden’s record.

It’s a phenomenon that is frustrating to some younger Black leaders in Virginia.

“You can’t be mad at [McAuliffe] for wanting to run for office,” said De’Andre Barnes, who is Black, a vice mayor of Portsmouth and a supporter of Fairfax’s bid. “The nerve comes from a lot of the Black leadership across the state joining up with McAuliffe instead of somebody who can represent the Black community from a younger standpoint and from an actual experience standpoint.”

Missed Opportunities

McAuliffe’s boosters depict him as a competent executive with the experience and grit to get things done. It’s why state Senate President Louise Lucas (D), the highest-ranking Black official in the state, is supporting McAuliffe.

Asked whether she considered electing Black Virginians to high office was important, Lucas replied, “Representation is important, and I also think a person who can get the job done is more important.”

But when it comes to some of the most high-profile criminal justice and policing fights during his time in office, McAuliffe and his allies argue that he was powerless to do more than he did.

McAuliffe applauded the passage of a bill prohibiting the death penalty that Northam signed into law earlier this month.

But as governor, when opponents of the death penalty pressed McAuliffe to use his executive authority to prevent or defer the three executions that occurred under his watch, he refused their overtures.

Instead, McAuliffe, who has said he is personally opposed to the death penalty, insisted that it was his obligation to enforce the letter of the law on the books in Virginia.

As European drug manufacturers began declining to export compounds to the U.S. that might be used for executions and death penalty opponents stepped up pressure on domestic firms, McAuliffe had to take measures to keep the death penalty in place.

He signed a law allowing pharmacies that compounded lethal injection drugs to conceal their identities in order to avoid scrutiny from death penalty opponents. By contrast, McClellan, then a member of the House of Delegates, voted against the bill in both 2015 and 2016.

“To me, that shows the distinction,” Koran Saines, a Black member of the Loudoun County board of supervisors backing Carroll Foy, said of McAuliffe’s handling of the executions. “McAuliffe ― he did a good job when he was in office, but it’s time for the new guard to take over.”

Even Surovell, a vice chair of the state Senate Democratic caucus who is defensive of McAuliffe’s record, said that McAuliffe’s inaction on executions, as well as his veto of the surveillance law, “disappointed” him.

When it came to controversial police killings, McAuliffe tended to defer to local prosecutors and police departments.

In February 2016, Roanoke police fatally shot Kionte DeSean Spencer, an 18-year-old resident of a group home, whom police said they thought was brandishing a firearm. Spencer, who was actually holding a BB gun, reportedly had his headphones on and did not respond to police requests to drop the weapon.

The county prosecutor declined to bring charges against the officers, the police department cleared the officers of wrongdoing and the Department of Justice determined that there was insufficient evidence to challenge the local authorities’ decisions.

But Black leaders and civil liberties advocates in southwest Virginia were outraged by the lack of transparency in the case. The complete dash-cam footage of the shooting and the identities of the officers are still not available to the public.

The Roanoke NAACP and the ACLU of Virginia both called on McAuliffe to initiate a state investigation into the shooting rather than rely on the police department’s investigation into itself.

Brenda Hale, president of the Roanoke NAACP, is still frustrated that the governor didn’t do more to try to initiate a state investigation.

“That was very disappointing,” Hale said. “A police department cannot investigate its own self.”

Technically, the state can only take over such an inquiry in Virginia if local authorities request it. But recent events suggest that police chiefs and prosecutors are responsive when state officials use their bully pulpits to call for state involvement.

On Tuesday, Carroll Foy joined calls by the Virginia Beach NAACP and the ACLU of Virginia for an independent investigation into the police killing of Donovan Lynch, a Black man who was carrying a gun in Virginia Beach. Police said that Lynch was brandishing the gun, but the body camera of the officer who killed him was not on.

Later that day, the Virginia Beach police chief responded by agreeing to the demand and requesting that the state take over investigation of the incident.

Neither McAuliffe nor McClellan has commented on the incident, though McClellan and McAuliffe’s campaigns told HuffPost that they support the state’s investigation.

As a white front-runner with a complicated record, though, McAuliffe must overcome a greater level of distrust than his rivals, particularly within the state’s multiracial progressive community. Alisa Middleton, a Black Lives Matter activist in Stafford who is backing Carroll Foy, called McAuliffe a “police sympathizer.”

The differences in McAuliffe, McClellan and Carroll Foy’s proposed criminal justice reforms are harder to spot.

For example, all three say that they would support a law requiring independent investigations of all police killings.

As a result, politics watchers are devoting more attention to what the three main contenders have done in the past.

Even with a Republican-controlled legislature, McAuliffe “could have been a more progressive governor for sure,” Tribbett said. “Terry McAuliffe is a trained Clinton Democrat.”

That feature of McAuliffe’s personality cuts both ways: He is a keen reader of political winds and has shifted to the left along with the rest of the Democratic Party.

Some of those shifts occurred during McAuliffe’s own tenure. In June 2015, McAuliffe banned Confederate flag emblems on Virginia license plates but said he opposed taking down statues commemorating the Confederacy on the grounds that they “are all parts of our heritage.”

Two years later, after the deadly white nationalist rally in Charlottesville, McAuliffe had a change of heart.

“What we’ve seen after Charlottesville and around the country is those statues have very similar significance to what went on when I removed the license plates,” he said in August 2017.

With the presumed benefit of Democratic control in the state legislature, McAuliffe is running on the premise that he would be more progressive in a second term.

He’s even adopted the language of the left, calling for a “new Virginia way” ― notwithstanding his long history with the original old one.

But McAuliffe’s detractors say he cannot run away from his record and worry that he will jettison his progressive views when he is no longer on the primary campaign trail.

Del. Joshua Cole, a Fredericksburg Democrat and the sole Black state lawmaker to endorse Carroll Foy, recalled Northam, an establishment Democrat in McAuliffe’s mold, backing bold ideas as a candidate that he then abandoned when in office.

“I just don’t want to have the same expectation with Terry McAuliffe: making promises now because he’s in a tough primary, then when he actually becomes governor, he forgets about it or brushes it off,” Cole said.


Virginia Genealogy Trails

A Proud Part of The Genealogy Trails History Group

Emigrants to Virginia

Source: Some Emigrants to Virginia
by W. G. Stanard, Publ. 1911.

Abbes, Edward, surgeon (d. 1637), formerly of London. V. M., XIV, 442. Mathews' Probate Acts.

Abrahall, Robert (in Virginia 1681, &c.), New Kent county. In 1681, Richard Cawthorn and Ann his wife, administratrix of her late husband, Thomas Abrahall, citizen and skinner, of London, gave a power of attorney to recover property in the hands of Mr. Robert Abrahall, of New Kent, Va. Middlesex Records.

Adam, Robert (b. 1731), Alexandria son of Rev. John Adam, D. D., and Janet Campbell his wife, of Kirkbride, Scotland. "The Lodge of Washington," p. 73.

Adams, Ebenezer (d. 1735), New Kent county son of Richard Adams, of Abridge, Essex, citizen and merchant tailor of London. W. M., V, 159-161.

Adams, Thomas (in Virginia shortly before 1664), Isle of Wight county brother of William Adams, of Kenton, Devon. W. M., VII, 225.

Allen, John (d. 1750), Spotsylvania county nephew of Mrs. Sarah Blake and Mrs. Jane Black, of Hamilton, Scotland. Spotsylvania Records.

Ambler, Richard (1690-1766), Yorktown and Jamestown son of John and Elizabeth (Burkadike) Ambler, of the city of York. Paxton's "Marshall Family," p. 42.

Andrews, Henry, gentleman (d. 1705), formerly of London. W. M., II, 165.

Andrews, John (d. in or before 1609) son of John Andrews, of Cambridge, merchant. V. M., XI, 155.

Archer, Michael, gentleman (1681-1726), James City county born near Rippon, in Yorkshire. Va. Hist. Col., VI, 71.

Ascough or Ayscough, Henry, gent., (b. about 1649, in Virginia 1679-1698, &c.), Henrico county brother of William Ascough, of the city of York (alive 1716). Henrico County Records.

Ashton, Peter (d. 1671), Northumberland and Stafford counties brother of James Ashton, of Kirby-Underwood, and of John Ashton, of Lowth (Louth), both in Lincolnshire. V. M., II, 27.

Ashton, James (d. 1686), Stafford county, formerly of Kirby-Underwood, Lincolnshire. V. M., II, 27 X, 292.

Ashton, John (d. 1682), Stafford county, formerly of Lowth (Louth), Lincolnshire. V. M., X, 293.

Atkins, John (d. 1624), James City county brother of William Atkins, who, in 1624, dwelt near the Bear, in Bassinghall, London. V. M., XI, 153.

Atkins, John (in Virginia 1636) grandson of John Atkins, of Chard, Somerset, merchant. V. M., XI, 150.

Atkinson, Roger (1725-1784), Blandford, Prince George county born at Whitehaven son of Roger and Jane (Benson) Atkinson. V. M., XV, 345.

Atkinson, William, the younger, gent., (d. 1613), formerly of London son of William Atkinson, of London, Esq. V. M., XII, 397.

Atterbury, Richard (d. 1638), formerly of London, fishmonger. V. M., XI, 153.

Atwood, James (d. 1686), Middlesex county, formerly of Yorkshire. Ch. Ch. Middlesex Parish Register.

Bacon, Mrs. Elizabeth (in Virginia 1674, &c.), Henrico county wife of Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., and daughter of Sir Edward Duke, of Benhill Lodge, near Saxmundham, Suffolk. Campbell's "History of Virginia," 312 W. M., XV, 65, 69.

Bacon, Nathaniel, Sr., (1620-1692), York county son of Rev. James Bacon, Rector of Burgate, Suffolk, and grandson of Sir James Bacon, of Freston Hall, Suffolk. V. M., II, 125-129.

Bacon, Nathaniel, Jr., (1647-1676), Henrico county son of Thomas Bacon, of Freston Hall, near Saxmundham, Suffolk. W. M., X, 267.

Bagge, Edmund (d. 1734), Essex county son of Luke Bagge, of Start, county Waterford, Ireland. V. M., XII, 290-300.

Bagge, Rev. John (d. 1726), Essex county brother of Leonard Bagge, of Kilbree, county Waterford, Ireland. V. M., XII, 299-300.

Bagwell, Roger (d. 1679), Rappahannock county brother of Andrew Bagwell, of Apson, county of Devon."Virginia County Records" (New York), p. 215.

Baker, John (in Virginia 1653), Lower Norfolk county son and heir of John Baker, "of St. Martin's in the Fields in the county of Middlesex, near London," (dead in 1653). John Baker, Jr., refers to property in that parish and in "Benfield towards Windsor." Lower Norfolk Records.

Baker, Martin (in Virginia 1635, &c.), York county formerly of Plymouth. V. M., II, 240.

Banks, Thomas (1642-1697), Northumberland county born at Woodstock, Wiltshire son of Thomas Banks, gent., and Dorothy his wife. W. M., XIII, 46.

Bankes, James (in Virginia 1656, &c.), Lower Norfolk county formerly of London, merchant. Lower Norfolk Records.

Banton, John (in Virginia 1669, &c.), Isle of Wight county formerly of Bristol, merchant. Isle of Wight Records.

Bargrave, Rev. Thomas (d. 1621) son of Robert Bargrave, of Bridge, Kent. Brown's "Genesis," II, 823.

Barnabe, John (in Virginia 1631, &c.) brother of Richard Barnabe, merchant, of London. V. M., XIII, 303-305.

Barnes, Jacob (in Virginia 1677, &c.) son of Edward Barnes and brother of Joshua Barnes, Greek Professor at Cambridge. V. M., XVI, 203.

Baskerville, John (d. 1675), York county son of John Baskerville, Esq., of Old Withington, Cheshire. V. M., XV, 58-60.

Bassett, William (d. 1672), New Kent county son of William Bassett, yeoman, of Newport, Isle of Wight. Keith's "Ancestry of Benjamin Harrison," 27-29.

Bath, John (in Virginia 1623), "of London a Leatherseller." V. M., XIX, 133.

Batte, Henry (in Virginia 1660, &c.) son of Robert Batte, Vice-Master of University College, Oxford. Rd. Standard, III, 40. Genealogist, October, 1898, 86-89.

Batte, William (in Virginia, 1654, &c.), Charles City county brother of Henry Batte, preceding. Richmond Standard, III, 40.

Batte, Thomas (in Virginia 1666, &c.) son of John Batte (d. 1652), of Okewell, Yorkshire, and his wife, Martha, daughter of Thomas Mallory, Dean of Chester. Rd. Standard, III, 40. Genealogist, October, 1898, 85-89.

Batte, Henry (in Virginia 1666, &c.) Charles City county brother of Thomas Batte, preceding. Rd. Standard, III, 40. Genealogist, October, 1898, 86-89.

Bathurst, Lancelot (b. 1646), New Kent county son of Sir Edward Bathurst, Bart., of Lechlade, Gloucestershire (who d. 1674).Visitation of Gloucestershire (Exeter, 1884.) W. M.,11, 215. Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetage.

Baugh, William (in Virginia 1639, &c.), late of London. (Probably William Baugh, who was born in 1610, and was J. P. for Henrico county, 1656, &c.) V. M., XIX, 193.

Bayly, Arthur (in Virginia 1642, &c), Henrico county of London, merchant. Col. Va. Register. V. M.

Baynes, Thomas (d. 1709), Middlesex county brother of William and Christopher Baynes, of Snape, Yorkshire. Middlesex Records.

Baytop, Thomas (d. 1690), Gloucester county from Staplehurst, Kent.V. M., XI, 69.

Beard, William (d. 1636), James City county mentions in his will his sisters in Rye. V. M., XI, 148.

Beauchamp, John (d. 1668), Henrico county also of St. Giles Without Cripplegate, London, merchant brother of Abel Beauchamp, gentleman, of Worcester. V. M., XVI, 192. Henrico Records.

Bechinoe, Edward (in Virginia 1668, &c.), Isle of Wight county brother of Conyers Bechinoe, of London, merchant. W. M.,VII, 226.

Beckingham, Robert (d. 1675), Lancaster county names in will his father, Mr. Robert Beckingham sister Martha, wife of Mr. John Burroughs brothers-in-law John Cume and Aubin Elves, and gives £8 sterling to the poor housekeepers in the parish of St. Edmund's, in Sarum. In 1669 was "of Portsmouth [Eng.], merchant." Lancaster Records.

Beckwith, Sir Marmaduke, Bart., (in Virginia 1709, &c., d. 1780), Richmond county son of Sir Roger Beckwith, Bart., of Aldborough, Yorkshire, (who d. 1700). Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetage. Richmond County Records.

Bedford, John (d. 1716), York county of Stepney, Middlesex. V. M., XI, 150.

Beheathland, John (d. 1639) from St. Endillion, Cornwall grandson of Mr. Richard Beheathland. V. M., XI, 363. Matthews' Probate Acts.

Belches, Hugh (1737-1803), Sussex county son of Thomas Belches, of Greenyard, Scotland, and his wife, Margaret Hepburn, of Boards. Belches' Family Records.

Belches, James, Surry county brother of Hugh Belches, preceding. Belches' Family Records.

Belches, Patrick (1733-1766), Hanover county brother of Hugh Belches, preceding. Belches' Family Records.

Bennett, Richard (d. 1675), Nansemond county nephew of Edward Bennett, merchant, of London, who, in 1621, &c., was deputy governor of the merchant adventurers of England, resident at Delft, Holland. Virginia Carolorum, 224, &c.

Benskin, Henry (in Virginia 1691, &c.) son of Francis Benskin, Esq., of St. martin's in the Fields, Middlesex. Waters' Gleanings.

Berkeley, John (d. 1622), Henrico county son of Sir John Berkeley, of Beverstone Castle, Gloucestershire. W. M., VI, 135.

Bernard, Richard (in Virginia 1655, &c.), Gloucester county in 1634 was of Petsoe, Bucks, gent. W. M., III, 41.

Bernard, William (d. 1665), Nansemond county son of Francis Bernard, of Kingsthorpe, Northants, (d. 1630), and brother of Sir Robert Bernard, Bart., of Brampton Hall, Huntingdonshire. V. M., IV, 207.

Beverley, Robert (d. 1687), Middlesex county a native of Yorkshire. Ch. Ch. Parish, Middlesex, Register. V. M., II, 405-413.

Bickley, Francis (in Virginia 1657, &c.) son of John Bickley, of London, draper. V. M., XI, 151, 152.

Bickley, Joseph (d. before 1751), King William county son of Sir Francis Bickley, Bart., of Attleborough Hall, Norfolk. (Joseph Bickley's son William, of Louisa county, succeeded to the baronetcy in 1752.) W. M., V, 29-30, 124-125.

Bigge, Henry (in Virginia 1635, &c.) brother of John Bigge, of St. Mary's, White Chapel, London, citizen and tallow chandler. Waters' Gleanings.

Billingsley, George (d. 1681), Upper Norfolk county refers in will to property left him by his grandmother, Agatha Billingsley, of Rotterdam. Maryland Calendar of Wills, I, 149.

Bishop, Henry (in Virginia 1646, &c.), Surry county of Henfield, Sussex was Postmaster-General of England 1660-63. V. M., VIII, 330. Virginia Carolorum.

Blackburn, Richard (1705-1757), Prince William county born at Rippon, Yorkshire. W. M., IV, 267.

Blackey, Thomas (in Virginia 1686, &c.), Middlesex county of Cumberland. Ch. Ch. Parish, Middlesex, Register.

Blancheflower, Benjamin (d. 1684-85 in Virginia), "of Fitzhead, county of Somerset, Gent."

Bland, Giles (1647-1676), Charles City county son of John Bland, of London, and his wife Sarah, daughter of Giles Green, Esq., of Ufflington, in the Isle of Purbeck. Familiae Minorum Gentium.

Bland, Edward (d. 1664), Charles City county son of John Bland, of London merchant. W. M., XV, 47. Familiae Minorum Gentium.

Bland, Theoderick (1629-1671), Charles City county son of John Bland, of London merchant. V. M., X, 372, 373. Familiae Minorum Gentium.

Bloss, John (in Virginia 1687, &c.), Middlesex county of Colchester, Essex. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Bolithoe, John (in Virginia 1725, &c.), Princess Anne county from Cornwall. Lower Norfolk County (Va.) Antiquary, I, 64.

Bolling, Robert (1646-1709), Charles City and Prince George counties son of John and Mary Bolling of All Hallows, Barking Parish, Tower street, London.V. M., VII, 352, 353.

Bolton, Henry (in Virginia 1691, &c.) son of William Bolton, clerk, of Harrow on the Hill, Middlesex. W. G., 662.

Booth, Humphrey (in Virginia 1654, &c.), Rappahannock county, of London, merchant, in 1653. V. M., III, 66.

Booth, Thomas (1662-1736), Gloucester county "born in Lancashire" (epitaph). A chart pedigree of the family, prepared many years ago, states that he was son of St. John Booth, son of John Booth, son of Sir George Booth, whose son William was the father of the first Lord Delamere. W. M., II, 223, 273, 274.

Boucher, Rev. Jonathan (b. 1738), Caroline county a native of Cumberland. Meade, I, 411.

Bowker, Rev. James (d. 1704), New Kent county brother of Edward Bowker, of London. V. M., XI, 313.

Bowker, Rev. Ralph (in Virginia 1704, &c.), King and Queen county brother of Rev. James Bowker, preceding. V. M., XI, 313.

Boyd, David (d. 1781), Northumberland county his father and mother were buried in the churchyard at Wigton, Scotland. W. M., VII, 126.

Bradford, Thomas (d. 1671) formerly of Batcombe, Somerset. P. C. C. Act Book.

Bradley, Thomas (b. 1633), a merchant in Virginia 1665, eldest son of Thomas Bradley, D. D., chaplain to Charles I, Prebend of York and Rector of Ackworth, Yorkshire a great Royalist, and his wife Frances, daughter of John, Lord Saville, of Pontefract. Genealogist (new series), XVI, 117.

Branch, Christopher (d. 1681), Henrico county son of Lionel Branch (b. 1566, d. about 1605), and grandson of William Branch, gent., (d. 1602), of Abingdon, Berkshire. MS pedigree prepared by Mr. J. H. Lea.

Bray, Robert (d. 1681), Lower Norfolk county son of Edward Bray, of Biggleswade, Bedfordshire (who was dead in 1681). Lower Norfolk Records.

Bray, Plomer (in Virginia 1681, &c.), Lower Norfolk county brother of Robert Bray, preceding. Lower Norfolk Records.

Brent, George (d. 1700), Stafford county son of George Brent, of Defford, Worcestershire, and his wife Marianna, daughter of Sir John Peyton, of Doddington. V. M., II, 35, 36 XII, 441 XIV, 100, 101 XV, 93, 94.

Brent, Giles (d. 1671), Stafford county son of Richard Brent, of Lark Stoke and Admington, Gloucestershire.V. M., XII, 439-440 XIV, 100 XV, 324, &c. XVI, 97, 98.

Brent, Robert (in Virginia 1693, &c.) son of George Brent, of Defford. V. M., XIV, 101.

Brewer, John (d. 1636), Warwick county son of Thomas Brewer, of London. W. G., 715 V. M., III, 183, 184.

Brewster, Sackford (in Virginia 1655, &c.), Surry county. In his marriage license, issued in Virginia, April 22, 1655, he is styled "Thomas alias Sackford Brewster, of Sackford Hall, in the county of Suffolk, gent." Surry Records.

Brewton, John (d. 1707), Stafford county legacy in his will to John, son of Thomas Brewton, of Gloucester, in England. Stafford Records.

Brigg, Henry (in Virginia 1622, &c.) brother to "Thomas Brigg, merchant at ye Custome House Key," London. Brown's "First Republic," p. 514.

Bristow, Robert (in Virginia 1660-80, b. 1643), Stafford county second son of Robert Bristow, Esq., of Ayot St. Lawrence, Hertfordshire. V. M., XIII, 59-62.

Britain, Richard (in Virginia 1659, &c.), Northampton county son of Stephen Britain, of East Greenwich, in the county of Kent, cordwainer. Northampton Records.

Brodhurst, Hugh (d. 1659) son of William Brodhurst, gent., of Lilleshall, Shropshire. W. M., IV, 88.

Brodhurst, Walter (1619-1661), Westmoreland county brother of Hugh Brodhurst, preceding. W. M., IV, 31, 74, 88 I, 188.

Brodnax, John (d. 1657), York county son of Thomas Brodnax, of Godmersham, Kent. W. M., XIV, 52-53.

Brodnax, John (1668-1719), Williamsburg son of Robert Brodnax, goldsmith, of Holborn, London. W. M., XIV, 138.

Brodnax, William (1675-1726), Jamestown born at Godmersham, Kent son of "Robert Brodnax, a goldsmith in Holborn, London." W. M., XIV, 53-56.

Broughton, Francis, "now in Virginia" pedigree of Broughton, Visitation of Staffordshire, 1663-4. W. M., XV, 70.

Brown, Dr. John (d. 1726), Williamsburg "late of Cold Stream, North Britain." Va. Hist. Col., VI, 76 W. M., VI, 253.

Buckridge, Ralph (in Virginia 1623) "of Sutten, in Barkshire, gent." V. M., XIX, 132.

Burwell, Mrs. Abigail (in Virginia 1671, &c.), Gloucester county wife of Lewis Burwell, and daughter of Anthony Smith, of Colchester, tanner, and his wife Martha, daughter of Rev. James Bacon, Rector of Burgate, Suffolk. Keith's Ancestry of Benjamin Harrison, 23-26.

Burwell, Lewis (d. 1653), Gloucester county son of Edward Burwell, of Harlington, Bedfordshire, and his wife Dorothy, daughter of William Bedell, of Catworth, Huntingdonshire. Keith's Ancestry of Benjamin Harrison, 34, 35.

Butler, William (in Virginia 1641, &c.), fishmonger, of London. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 61, p. 92.

Cabell, Dr. William (1700-1774), Goochland and Amherst counties son of Nicholas Cabell, of Frome, Somerset. Cabells and Their Kin, 19-21, 63, &c.

Cade, Henry (in Virginia 1662, &c.) son of Walter Cade, who was nephew of Andrew Cade, Esq., of East Betchworth, Surrey, (who died in 1662). V. M., XII, 71.

Cairon, Rev. Jean (d. 1716), Henrico county formerly minister of Cajarc, France. Huguenot Emigration, 74.

Calthorpe, Christopher (d. 1662), York county son of James Calthorpe, Esq., of East Barsham, Suffolk. V. M., II, 106-112, 160-164.

Camm, Rev. John (1718-1779), York county son of Thomas Camm, of Hornsea, Yorkshire. W. M., IV, 61.

Campbell, Rev. Archibald (in Virginia 1754, &c.), Westmoreland county son of Archibald Campbell, of Kirnan, Argyleshire, Scotland, and his wife Anna Stewart, of Ascog. Rd. Standard, April 12 and May 3, 1879.

Campbell, Alexander (1710-1801), Falmouth brother of Rev. Archibald Campbell, preceding. He returned to Scotland, and was father of Thomas Campbell, the poet. Rd. Standard, April 12 and May 3, 1879.

Campfield, Francis (in Virginia 1662, &c.), Gloucester county citizen and grocer, of London. V. M., XI, 307.

Carpenter, Nathaniel, King and Queen county, 1766, &c "A Devonshire gentleman," brother of Coryndon Carpenter, Esq., of Launceston, Cornwall. Wallace's Virginia Historical Magazine—note to "Fauntleroy Family."

Carter, Edward (d. 1682), of Nansemond county, Va. returned to England, and at time of death was "of Edmonton county, Middlesex, Esq.," bequeathed lands in Edmonton and in Chalfont St. Peter's, county Bucks to be buried in St. Dunston's in the East, London, near his former wife, Amie Carter. Waters' Gleanings.

Cary, John (b. 1644, living in Surry county, Va., 1669, &c., but of London in 1700) son of Thomas Cary, of Bristol. N. E. H. & G. Reg.

Cary, Miles (1620-1667), Warwick county son of John and Alice (Hobson) Cary, of Bristol. Goode's "Virginia Cousins," 281-282.

Cary, Oswald (in Virginia 1690, &c.), Middlesex county son of James Cary, merchant, of London. W. M., IX, 45.

Cary, Warren (in Virginia 1711, &c.), Richmond county brother of Richard Cary, of Bristol. Richmond County Records.

Catlett, John (d. 1670), Sittingbourne Parish, Rappahannock county. His son, John Catlett, gave power of attorney to sell lands at Sittingbourne and Radwlesham(?), Kent, which had been left him by his father. V. M., III, 62, 63.

Cawson, Jonas (in Norfolk county, Va., about 1702, &c.) went to school in the town of Lancaster in 1692. His father lived a short distance from that town. Norfolk County Records.

Cawthorne, Richard (in Virginia 1681, &c.), Rappahannock county son of Richard Cawthorne, citizen and merchant-tailor, of London, whose wife, in 1681, was Anne, formerly widow of Thomas Abrahall, citizen and skinner, of London. Middlesex Records.

Chamberlayne, Thomas (in Virginia 1675, &c.), Henrico and Charles City counties son of Col. Edmund Chamberlayne, of Maugersbury, Gloucestershire. Visitation of Gloucestershire, 1682-3.

Chamberlayne, William (1699 or 1700-1736), New Kent county "Descended of an Ancient and Worthy Family in the County of Hereford," (epitaph). Beau Monde, March 31, 1894.

Chandler, Daniel (in Virginia 1650, &c.) son of Edward Chandler, of Ware, Hertfordshire, draper. V. M., XIII, 309.

Chapman, Richard (in Virginia 1740, &c.), King William county from Lincolnshire. W. M., VI, 60.

Cheesman, John (d. 1665), Elizabeth City and York counties at the time of his death "of St. Mary Magdalen, Bermondsey, Surrey, gent.," left property at Braban (Brabourne ?) Kent, and at Southall, Eling, Old Bradford and New Bradford. V. M., XIV, 86.

Chesley, Philip (d. 1674), York county a native of Welford, Gloucestershire. W. M., I, 86. V. M., XIII, 63.

Cheyney, Henry (in Virginia 1623), "of York, merchant." V. M., XIX, 133.

Chichester, Richard (1657-1734), Lancaster county born at Silverton, Devon, March 5, 1657 came to Virginia, 1702 son of John Chichester of Widworthy (will 1661), whose great-great-grandfather, John Chichester of Widworthy, was a son of John Chichester of Raleigh.

Copies of wills, parish registers, &c, in possession of Mr. A. M. Chichester. Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, 93, &c.

Chichley, Sir Henry (1615-1683), Middlesex county son of Sir Thomas Chichley of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire. V. M., April, 1909.

Churchill, William (1650-1711), Middlesex county born at North Aston, Oxfordshire. Keith's Ancestry of Benj. Harrison. W. M., VII, 186.

Claiborne, William (1587-1677), New Kent county, &c. son of Edmund and Grace (Bellingham) Claiborne of Kellerby, Yorkshire, and Cleborne Hall, Westmoreland. V. M., I, 313.

Clack, Rev. James (d. 1723), Gloucester county born in the parish of Marden, Wiltshire son of William and Mary Clack. W. M., III, 32.

Clarke, Charles (d. 1785), Cumberland and Powhatan counties in Virginia 1745. Stated to have been a native of Surrey. In his will, dated 1763, he makes provision in case "the estate in England in the hands of my mother's sister, Mrs. Charity Kent, widow of Daniel Kent, merchant, formerly of Bell Court, Common Street, London," should be recovered. Powhatan Records.

Clarke, John (d. shortly before 1644), York county son of Sir John Clarke of Wrotham, Kent. W. M., I, 84, 85 XII, 36-37.

Clarke, Thomas (d. 1670), York county son of Edward Clarke of Thriploe, near Foulsmere, Cambridgeshire. V. M., XII, 178.

Clay, Francis. In the "Prerogative Court of Mansfield" (a probate court now extinct, with the records at Nottingham), is the bond, dated March 3, 1691, of Daniel Clay, of Mansfield, joyner, as administrator of the goods of Francis Clay, "late of Chickahomene in Virginia." The inventory is filed with the bond and states that Francis Clay was the son of Richard Clay, deceased. The bond was given before William Clay, steward of the manor of Mansfield, who seals with his arms. A Francis Clay, gentleman, lived in Northumberland county, Va. was a J. P. for that county 1659, &c., and in a deposition made in 1661, when he was aged thirty-four, says he came to Virginia in 1649. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 37. p. 202. Northumberland County Records.

Clayton, John (1665-1737), Gloucester county son of Sir John Clayton, of London, and of Parsons Green, Fulham. Wallace's Virginia Historical Magazine.

Clift, Wombwell (d. 1737), Hanover county "of a good family in Yorkshire." Virginia Gazette, January 10, 1737.

Clifton, James (in Virginia 1669, &c.), Stafford county son of Thomas Clifton, Esq , of Westby and Clifton, Lancashire. Burke's Commoners (1835), II, 57, Md. Archives. Stafford County Records.

Cocke, Mrs. Elizabeth (in Virginia 1713, &c.), Williamsburg wife of Dr. William Cocke, and sister of Mark Catesby, the English naturalist. V. M., V, 189, 190 IX, 128.

Cocke, Dr. William (1672-1720), Williamsburg "born of respectable parents at Sudbury in Suffolk." (Epitaph.) Va. Hist. Col., VI, 84, 85.

Codd, St. Leger (d. 1708), Northumberland county bequeathed lands at Wateringbury, Lenham and Wetchlin (?), Kent. There can be no doubt that he was son of William Codd, Esq., of Pelicans, Kent, who married, in 1632, Mary, daughter of Sir Warham St. Leger, of Ulcombe, Kent. V. M., X, 374.

Coggan, Mrs. Frances (d. 1677), Charles City county wife of John Coggan, and daughter of Gregory Bland (b. 1587) of St. Gregories, London. Familiae Minorum Gentium. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 47, p. 354.

Coke, John (1704-1767), Williamsburg son of Richard Coke (d. 1730), and grandson of Richard Coke, of Trusley, Derbyshire. Coke's "Coke of Trusley." W. M., VII, 127, 128.

Colclough, George (in Virginia 1658, &c.), Northumberland county brother of Thomas Colclough, merchant, of London. W. M., XVII, 60.

Collier, William (in Virginia 1670, &c.), York and New Kent counties formerly "citizen and weaver, of London." W. M., VIII, 256.

Cole, William (b. 1597, in Virginia 1618-29, &c.), Nutmeg Quarter son of Humfrie Cole, of Tillingham, Essex, clerk. V. M., XIX, 189, 190.

Coltman, Henry (in Virginia 1622, &c.) son of Ann Coltman, of London, widow. W. G., 141.

Colville, John (d. 1756), Fairfax county late of Newcastle on Tyne made bequests to his brother Thomas Colville, with reversion to the Earl of Tankerville, and states that the Earl was the son of his (J. C.'s) father's brother's daughter. Fairfax County Records.

Collins, Robert (in Virginia 1623) "of London, haberdasher." V. M., XIX, 133.

Comrie, Mrs. Margaret (d. January 9, 1739) wife of Dr. William Comrie, of Hanover county niece of Mr. Thomas Parratt, one of the Masters in Chancery (in England), and sister to Mr. Josias Baintone, one of the Six Clerks of that office. Virginia Gazette, January 15, 1739.

Conway, Edwin (d. 1675), Northampton and Lancaster counties "of Worcestershire."

Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, 225-229.

Constable, Robert (in Virginia 1623), James City "of North Allerton in Yorkshire, gent." V. M., XIX, 133.

Cooke, Travers (d. 1759), Stafford county states in his will that there is a large balance due him from his uncle, Thomas Youghall, of the Kingdom of Ireland, on account of the rents and profits of his estate there. Stafford Records.

(It is probable that the compiler made an error in his notes from the will of Travers Cooke, and that "uncle Thomas Youghall" should read "uncle Thomas Cooke of Youghall." The will of Thomas Cooke, of Youghal, County Cork, gent., was proved in Dublin in 1750 that of John Cooke, of Youghal, Esq., proved in Dublin in 1713, and a copy of the will of Johu Cooke, of Overwharton parish, Stafford county, Va., the father of Travers Cooke, was proved in December, 1735.)

Cooper, Sampson (d. 1659), Northumberland county Alderman of Rippon, Yorkshire. W. M., XIII, 28.

Corbin, Henry (1629-1675), Middlesex county third son of Thomas Corbin, Esq., of Hall End, Warwickshire. "Lee of Virginia," 83. Corbin Pedigree. V. M., XVII, 401.

Cosens, John (d. 1674), Northumberland county came to Virginia from Cudreclge (Goodrich ?) in the parish of Bishops Walton, Southampton, where he owned land. Lancaster Records.

Cotton, William, mariner (in Virginia 1659, &c.) son of William Cotton, who owned a house at Bedminster near Bristol. W. M., V, 124.

Cotton, Rev. William (d. 1646), Northampton county. His mother Joane lived at Bunbury, Cheshire. V. M., IV, 406. W. M., V, 124.

Crampton, John (in Virginia 1623), "of Bolton in the Moore, Lancashire." V. M., XIX, 132.

Crawley, Thomas (in Virginia 1659, &c.), old Rappahannock county son of Robert and Margaret Crawley, and baptized in the parish of St. Margaret's, Bristol, August 27, 1637. Rappahannock Records.

Crompton, Thomas (in Virginia 1623), "of Bolton in the Moore, Lankashire." V. M., XIX, 132.

Craik, Dr. James (1730-1784), Alexandria son of William Craik, of Arbigland, near Dumfries, Scotland. (The father of John Paul Jones was a gardener at Arbigland.) Hayden, 341.

Creffield, Edward, Jr. (d. 1694), Gloucester county son of Edward Creffield, of Chapel, Essex. V. M., XIX, 289.

Creyk, Henry (1637-1684), Middlesex county son of Gregory Creyk, of Marton, Yorkshire, and his wife Ursula, daughter of Sir John Legard. Familiae Minorum Gentium, III, 950-952. Genealogist (N. S., XXIII, 42). Middlesex Records.

Crouch, Richard (b. about 1586, in Virginia 1623), James City county, "of Howton (Houghton) Bedfordshire, carpenter." V. M., XIX, 133, 134.

Culpeper, Alexander (in Virginia 1672, &c.) In 1672 Governor Berkeley applied to the English Government for the appointment of his wife's brother, Alexander Culpeper, to the office of surveyor general of Virginia. He stated that Captain Culpeper was a person who had lived a number of years in Virginia, and whose father had lost his estate, liberty and life in the King's service. V. M., I, 83.

Curle, Thomas (1640-1700), Elizabeth City county born in the parish of St. Michael, Lewis, Sussex. W. M., IX, 125.

Custis, Edmond (in Virginia 1690, &c.), Northampton county son of Francis Custis, of Baltimore, Ireland. Northampton Records.

Custis, John (in Virginia 1650, &c.), Northampton county son of John Custis, of Rotterdam, Holland, formerly of Gloucestershire, England. V. M., VIII, 394.

Custis, William (in Virginia 1650, &c.), Northampton brother of John Custis, preceding. V. M., VIII, 394.

Dade, Francis (d. 1663), Stafford county, 1654, &c. sixth son of William Dade, Esq., of Tannington, Suffolk, and his wife Mary, daughter of Henry Wingfield, Esq., of Crofield, Suffolk. When Francis Dade came to Virginia he called himself for several years Major John Smith. The reason is unknown but it was evidently nothing which prevented him from visiting England later, as he was returning from a visit to England when he died at sea in 1663. Genealogical Memoranda Relating to the Family of Dade of Suffolk. Pedigrees from the Visitation of Kent, 1663-68, pp. 97, 98. Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, 731, &c. W. M., VIII, 205.

Daniel, Thomas (in Virginia 1676, &c.) son of Ann Jones, widow, of St. Clements Danes, Middlesex. W. G., 27.

Davison, Christopher (d. before 1624), James City county son of William Davison, of Middlesex, Secretary of State to Queen Elizabeth. W. M., X, 169.

Dawson, Owen (in Virginia 1623), "of St. Martins in the Fields, joiner." V. M., XIX, 132.

Dawson, Mrs. Anne (in Virginia 1744, &c.) wife of Benjamin Dawson, of Virginia, and sister of Francis Brooks, of Plaistow, Essex, gent. V. M., XVI, 65.

Dawson, Rev. Thomas (d. 1761), Williamsburg son of William Dawson, "pleb." of Aspatria, Cumberland. W. M., II, 209. Foster's Oxford Matriculations.

Dawson, Rev. Musgrave (1723- ), Caroline county brother of Thomas Dawson, preceding. W. M., II, 52.

Dawson, Rev. William (d. 1752), Williamsburg brother of Thomas Dawson, preceding. W. M., II, 51.

Davis, John (d. 1686), Middlesex county of Bristol. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Davy, John (in Virginia 1648, &c.) son of Simon Davy, and nephew of John Davy, gent., of Maidstone, Kent. W. G., 1299.

Day, James (d. 1700), Isle of Wight county owned two freehold tenements in Broadstreet in or near Augustine Fryers in the parish of St. Peter the Poor, London. W. M., VII, 251.

Daynes, William (1617- ), in Virginia (Lower Norfolk county) 1655 in 1679-80, of Bristol, merchant. In 1709 Sir William Daynes, of Bristol, made deeds in Norfolk county— though later than this a William Daynes died in Norfolk county. Lower Norfolk and Norfolk Records.

Deans, James (d. 1762), Chesterfield county left £200 to the Infirmary of Aberdeen. Chesterfield Records.

De Graffenreidt, Christopher, Jr. (in Virginia 1722, &c.), Williamsburg and Prince George county son of Baron Christopher De Graffenreidt, and Regina (Tscharner) his wife, of Berne, Switzerland. W.M., XV, 61.

Delalua, Soloman (d. 1703), Henrico county late of Rochelle, France.

Dennet, William (in Virginia 1641, &c.) fishmonger, of London. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 61, p. 199.

Derick, Henry (d. 1677), late of the parish of St. Stephen's, Bristol. V. M., XVI, 197, 198.

Dewall, Edward (d. 1640), Warwicksqueake county son of George Dewall, gent., of Reading, Berkshire. E. D., in his will, styles himself servant of Symon Cornocke of Warwicksqueake, Va., and leaves his master an inn, called the Rose, in Reading, which had been left him by his father. V. M., XIII, 204.

Dews, Richard (d. 1686), Middlesex county of Yorkshire. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Digges, Edward (1621-1676), York county son of Sir Dudley Digges, of Chilham Castle, Kent M. P. and Master of the Rolls, and his wife Mary, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Thomas Kempe, of Olantigh, Kent. W. M., I, 87, 140, 141. Meade I, 244. V. M., X, 378 XIV, 305.

Dinwiddie, John (d. 1726), King George county son of Robert Dinwiddie, merchant, of Glasgow, and brother of Robert Dinwiddie, Governor of Virginia. Dinwiddie Papers, I, XXI-XXIII. King George Records.

Dixon, John (in Virginia 1729-51, d. 1758), King and Queen county at time of death was "of Bristol, Esquire," owned houses and land at Lateridge in the parish of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire. V. M., July, 1911.

Doggett, Rev. Benjamin (d. 1682), Lancaster county had, in 1677, business dealings with Richard Doggett, of Ipswich, merchant. Lancaster Records.

Donne, George (in Virginia 1637, &c.) baptized May 9, 1605, at Camberwell, Surrey son of Dr. John Donne. Neill's Virginia Carolorum.

Dormer, Sir Fleetwood (in Virginia 1649, &c.) formerly of Arle Court, Gloucestershire son of Sir Fleetwood Dormer, of Lee Grange and Purton, Bucks (who d. 1639). Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetage. V. M., XIII, 406.

Douglas, James (1724- ), Prince William county son of James Campbell Douglas, of Mains, Scotland, and brother of Margaret (d. 1774), who married Archibald, Duke of Douglas. Hayden, 691.

Douglass, William (d. 1783), Loudoun county son of Hugh Douglass, of Garalland or Garallan, parish of Old Cumnock, Scotland. V. M., 336.

Downes, John (in Virginia 1623), "of London, grocer." V. M., XIX, 133.

Doyley, Rev. Cope (d. 1713), Williamsburg son of Charles Doyley, gent., of Southrop, Gloucestershire. V. M., XII, 300, 301.

Dunlop, William (1707-1739), Prince William county son of Alexander Dunlop, Greek Professor in the University of Glasgow. W. M., XV., 279.

Dyer, John (in Virginia 1623), "of London, carpenter." V. M., XIX, 134.

Earle, George (in Virginia 1637, &c.), Lower Norfolk county son of George Earle, of Eastratford, Nottinghamshire, draper N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 55, pp. 339, 340.

Eles, Nathaniel (in Virginia 1618, &c.) son of Nathaniel Eeles, of Harpendon, Hertfordshire.

Elliott, Thomas (d. 1686), Middlesex county of Chipping Ongar, Essex. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Eman, John (in Virginia 1623), "of London, goldsmith." V. M., XIX, 133.

Evelyn, George (1593- ), in Virginia 1649, &c., James City county son of Robert Evelyn, and grandson of George Evelyn, of Long Ditton, Surrey. Scull's "Evelyns in America," 1-45. V. M., IX, 172.

Evelyn, Mountjoy (in Virginia about 1650, &c.), Northampton county son of George Evelyn (preceding), and grandson of Robert Evelyn, of Long Ditton and Godstone, Surrey. Scull's "Evelyns in America," 66. V. M., IX, 172, 173.

Evelyn, Robert (b. 1593, d. 1649), born in London, in Virginia 1637, &c. youngest son of Robert Evelyn, of Long Ditton, Surrey. Scull's "Evelyns in America," 47-59, 66.

Fabian, Symon (in Virginia 1668, &c.), lived on York River son of Edmond Fabian, of St. Andrew's, Holborn, Middlesex, citizen and merchant tailor. V. M., XV, 300.

Fairfax, Ferdinando (1636-1664), in Virginia 1659, &c. a Virginia merchant of London son of Col. Charles Fairfax, of Menston, Yorkshire, and grandson of Thomas, first Baron Fairfax of Cameron. Herald and Genealogist, VI, 401. V. M., VII, 73.

Fairfax, Thomas, 6th Lord (1690-1781), Frederick county. Burke's Peerage.

Fairfax, William (1691-1757), Fairfax county son of Henry Fairfax, of Towlston, Yorkshire, and grandson of Henry, 4th Lord Fairfax. (W. F.'s son Bryan succeeded to the title.) V. M., IV, 102, &c. "The Thomas Book," 308, 309.

Farley, Thomas (in Virginia 1623, &c.), James City county "of Worcester in Worcestershire, gent." V. M., XIX, 131, 132.

Farnefold, Rev. John (in Virginia 1672-1702), Northumberland county son of Sir Thomas Farnefold, of Gatwickes in Stayning, Sussex. W. M., XVII, 245.

Farnefold, Mrs. Mary, Northumberland county wife of Rev. John Farnefold, and daughter of George Brookes, of London, merchant. W. M., XVII, 245.

Farrington, Richard (in Virginia 1677, &c.), Lancaster county brother of John Farrington, of London, merchant. Lancaster Records.

Fauntleroy, Moore ( -1663), Rappahannock county son of John Fauntleroy (d. 1644), of Crondall, Hampshire. Wallace's Virginia Hist. Mag., July, 1891.

Feild, Mrs. Margaret (in Virginia 1772, &c.) wife of Dr. John Feild, Prince George county, and daughter of John Shaw (died in 1772), merchant, of Edinburgh. Prince George Records.

Felgate, William (d. 1660), York county was in 1649 "of the City of London, skinner." V. M., II, 181, 182.

Fell, Henry (b. 1600, d. in Virginia 1623) "of Christchurch in Oxford, student." (B. A. Christ Church, 1620, "of London, gent."—Foster.) V. M., XIX, 132, 133.

Fielding, Ambrose (d. 1675), Northumberland county brother of Edward and Richard Fielding, merchants, of Bristol, and of Dr. Robert Fielding, of Gloucester. V. M., XI, 453-456 XII, 99-101.

Fillbrigge, John (in Virginia 1638, &c.) brother of Robert Fillbrigge, citizen and scrivenor, of London. V. M., XII, 174.

Filmer, Henry (in Virginia 1642, &c.), James City and Warwick counties son of Sir Edward Filmer, of East Sutton, Kent, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Argall and sister of Samuel Argall, Governor of Virginia. V. M., XV, 181, 182. Berry's Kentish Genealogies.

Finch, Henry (in Virginia 1630, &c.) son of Sir Henry Finch and brother of Sir John Finch, Speaker of the House of Commons 1628-29. V. M., VII, 384 XVII, 10.

Fitzgeffrey, George (in Virginia 1643), "of Howton Conquest in Bedfordshire, gent." V. M., XIX, 133.

Fitzgeffrey, William (in Virginia 1623), James City county "of Staple Inn, gent." V. M., XIX, 132, 133.

Fitzhugh, William (1651-1701), Stafford county son of Henry Fitzhugh, of the town of Bedford. V. M., I, 413, 415 II, 277-278.

Fleet, Henry (1600-1661), Lancaster county son of William Fleet, gent., of Chartham, Kent, and his wife Deborah, daughter of Charles Scott, of Scottshall, Kent. V. M., II, 71 V, 253, &c.

Fleetwood, Edward, gent. (d. 1609), went to Virginia 1609 son of Sir William Fleetwood, Recorder of London, and brother of Sir William Fleetwood, of Great Missendon, Bucks. V. M., XIII, 405.

Fleming, Daniel (d. 1754), Louisa county in his will he names his wife, then with him in Virginia, and children he had left in Lancashire. Louisa County Records.

Fletcher, George (in Virginia 1652, &c.), Northumberland county brother of James Fletcher, gent., of Eltham, Kent. In 1647 George Fletcher was "of London, merchant." Northampton Records. Hening, I, 374.

Flournoy, Jacob (1663- ), Williamsburg son of Jacques Flournoy, of Geneva, Switzerland, and uncle of John James Flournoy, of Virginia. V. M., II, 85-87.

Flournoy, John James (1686-1740), Henrico county son of Jacques Flournoy, of Geneva, Switzerland. V. M., II, 83-84.

Fontaine, James (in Virginia 1717, &c.) son of Rev. James Fontaine, who was born at Jenouelle, France, and grandson of Rev. James Fontaine, pastor of Vaux and Royan. Huguenot Emigration, 120, 121.

Fontaine, Rev. Francis (1691-1749), York county brother of Rev. James Fontaine, preceding. Huguenot Emigration, 122.

Fontaine, Rev. Peter (1692-1757), Henrico and Charles City counties brother of Rev. James Fontaine, preceding. Heguenot [sic] Emigration, 122.

Foote, Richard (1632-1689, &c.), Stafford county born at Cardenham, in the county of Cornwall son of John Foote, gent. V. M., VII, 73.

Forby, Benjamin (in Virginia 1660, &c.), Princess Anne county son of Felix Forby, of Norwich, hosier, who owned freeholds in Worstead and North Walsham, Norfolk. V. M., XII, 398.

Fowke, Gerrard (d. 1669), Westmoreland county son of Roger Fowke, of Gunston Hall, Staffordshire. Hayden, 154-156, 744.

Fowke, Thomas (d. 1663), James City and Westmoreland counties brother of Gerrard Fowke, preceding. Hayden, 155.

Foxhall, John (d. 1704), Westmoreland county left real and personal estate at Bromingham (Birmingham), Warwickshire. V. M., XV, 301.

Freeman, Henry, Sr. (d. shortly before 1687), York county formerly a mercer of Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire. W. M., II, 164, 165.

Fry, Joshua (1700-1754), Essex county son of Joseph Fry, "pleb.", of Crewkerne, Somerset. W. M., II, 150. Foster's Oxford Matriculations.

Garlick, Samuel (d. 1772), King and Queen county. His mother, at the date of his will, was Mrs. Hannah Garlick, of Bristol.W. M., XVI, 101.

Gerrard, Thomas (d. 1673), Westmoreland county emigrated from England to Maryland but removed to Virginia, where he died. In his will he gives to his son Justinian his right to any land in England. Justinian Gerrard was J. P. for Westmoreland 1668, but removed to Maryland, where he died. In his will, dated 1682, he bequeathed lands in Lancashire. Westmoreland County Records. Maryland Calendar of Wills, II, 40. Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, 490.

Gill, Alexander (in Virginia 1623), Mulberry Island "of Maldon in Bedfordshire." V. M., XIX, 133, 134.

Glassell, John (1734-1806), Fredericksburg son of Robert Glassell, of Torthorwald, Dumfrieshire, Scotland. Hayden, 4.

Glassell, Andrew (1738-1827), Culpeper county brother of John Glassell, preceding. Hayden, 5.

Goddard, Anthony (in Virginia 1663, d. 1663) formerly of Suringden, Wiltshire. Maryland Calendar of Wills, I, 24.

Godsell, John (d. 1678), Lancaster county. His daughter lived at Charleville, Ireland. Lancaster Records.

Goode, John (in Virginia 1678, &c.) brother of Rev. Marmaduke Goode, of Ufton, Berkshire. W. G., 26.

Gookin, Daniel (in Virginia 1621, &c.) of "Mary's Mount," near Newport News formerly of Cargoline, Cork, Ireland son of John Gookin, of Ripple Court, Kent. V. M., VI, 71.

Gordon, George (d. 1786), Westmoreland county bequeathed lands at Sheepbridge, Clogheramer, Lisduff, Carmern and Daryoghly, all in County Down, Ireland. Westmoreland Records.

Gordon, James (1714-1768), Lancaster county son of James Gordon, gent., "of Sheepbridge and Lisduff, in the Lordship of Newry, County Down, Ireland." W. M., XII, 11. Hayden, 248.

Gordon, John (in Virginia 1738, &c.), Middlesex county brother of James Gordon, preceding. W. M., XII, 11. Hayden, 251, 252.

Gordon, Rev. John (d. about 1705), James City county son of Patrick Gordon, Regent of King's College, Aberdeen. Hayden, 617, 618.

Gordon, Samuel (1717-1771), Petersburg son of David Gordon, Esq., of Craig, in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, Scotland. W. M., VI, 22.

Gorsuch, Rev. John (d. about 1657), Lancaster county formerly Rector of Walkholme, Hertfordshire married Ann, daughter of Sir William Lovelace of Kent, and sister of Richard Lovelace, the poet. V. M., III, 83.

Gosnold, Anthony (in Virginia 1615, &c.) grandson of Robert Gosnold, Esq., of Earleshall, Suffolk. V. M., XIV, 87.

Gosnold, Thomas (in Virginia 1702, &c.) son of Rebecca Gosnold, widow, of St. Martin's in the Fields, London, and nephew of David Ramage. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 57, p. 95.

Gowton, John (in Virginia 1623) "of Harfield in Surrey, gent." V. M., XIX, 133.

Graham, John (1711-1787), Prince William county son of John Graham, Esq., of Wackinston, Perthshire, Scotland, and his wife Margaret, daughter of John Graham, Esq., of Killearn. Hayden, 162.

Gray, John (1769- ), Caroline county son of William Gray (d. 1777), of Garlcraig, Scotland. V. M., XI, 210.

Greenhow, John (1724-1787), Williamsburg born at Staunton, near Kendal, Westmoreland son of Robert and Ann (Dodgson) Greenhow, of High House, Staunton, near Kendal. Va. Hist. Col., VI, 77. W. M., XVII, 273, 274.

Grendon, Thomas (d. 1685), Charles City county grandson of Thomas Grendon, citizen and draper, of London (who d. 1678.) W. G., 429. V. M., XIV, 207.

Griffin, Lady Christina (d. 1807), Williamsburg wife of Judge Cyrus Griffin, and daughter of John Stuart, 6th Earl of Traquair. V. M., I, 256, 467.

Griffin, Samuel (d. 1703), Northumberland county brother of David Griffin, citizen and tallow-chandler, of Bassinghall street, London. Samuel Griffin also owned property in Gloucestershire.

Grinley, James (1743-1763), Williamsburg son of Alexander Grinley, of Dunbar, Scotland. Va. Hist. Col., XI, 71.

Grove, John, in Surry county 1668-69, &c. in 1656 "of Bristol, merchant." He died in 1673. Surry County Records.

Grymes, William (in Virginia 1694, &c.) son of Sir Thomas Grymes, of Peckham. Richmond Critic October 12, 1889.

Gwyn, David (d. 1704), Richmond county had a sister Elizabeth, wife of Mr. Benjamin Gwyn, of Bristol, and a brother Edward Gwyn, clerk, in Wales. Left to his sister Mary all of his real estate in Wales lying in and about Harford West. W. M., XVII, 83.

Hacke, Dr. George (in Virginia 1663, &c.) Northampton county born in Cologne in the Palatinate. V. M., V, 256, &c.

Hacker, John (in Virginia 1653, &c.) son of John Hacker, of Stepney, Middlesex, and nephew of Thomas Hacker, of Penzance, Cornwall. W. G., 878.

Hallam, Robert (1602-1637), Charles City county brother of William Hallam, of Burnham, Essex. W. M., VIII, 237-245. V. M., XIII, 55.

Hallam, Thomas (in Virginia 1656, &c.), Charles City county son of Thomas Hallam of Essex (dead in 1656). W. M., VIII, 243, 244.

Hallows, John (in Virginia 1655, &c.), Westmoreland county, "late of Rochdale, in the county of Lancaster" born about 1615. In 1732 his heir, Samuel Hallows, Esq., lived at Ashwick, Lancashire. He was a descendant of Samuel Hallows, of England, elder brother of John Hallows. Westmoreland Records. Barton's Colonial Reports, II, B. 26.

Hamor, Ralph, Jr. (d. 1626) son of Ralph Hamor, citizen and merchant-tailor, of London. W. G., 1000, 1012. V. M., I, 86.

Hamor, Thomas (in Virginia 1622, &c.) brother of Ralph Hamor, Jr., preceding. W. G., 1000, 1012. V. M., I, 86.

Hampton, William (in Virginia 1627, &c.) brother of Lawrence Hampton, of London, tailor. W. G., 876.

Handford, Tobias (d. 1677), Gloucester county son of Hugh Handford, of London. John Handford, of Ludlow, Esq., by his will, dated 1669, left his manor of Shobden, Herefordshire, and other estates, in case of the death of his son John without issue, to the above Tobias Handford, of Virginia, with a farther reversion to Walter Handford, of Wallashall, Worcestershire. V. M., XIII, 199-200.

Harecourt, William (in Virginia 1674, &c.), Lower Norfolk county was dead in 1695, and his daughter and co-heiresses were Hannah, wife of William Hill, of Rockingham, Kent, and the wife of Henry Foster, of London. Lower Norfolk Records.

Harmar, Charles (d. about 1644), Northampton county brother of Dr. John Harmar, Greek Professor at Oxford. V. M., III, 274.

Harmar, John (in Virginia 1652, &c.) son of Dr. John Harmar," Greek Reader in the University of Oxford." V. M., III, 274.

Harris, John (d. 1719), Northumberland county son of Joseph Harris, and nephew of William Harris, of Haynie, in the parish of Stowford, Devon mentions in his will (1718) a legacy from this uncle, then in the hands of Christopher Harris, Esq., of Padstow, Devon. Northumberland Records.

Harrison, Burr (in Virginia 1665, &c.), Stafford county "baptized in the parish of St. Margaret's, Westminster, 28th December, 1637 son of Cuthbert Harrison." Hayden, 512.

Harrison, George (d. 1624) brother of Sir John Harrison, of Aldcliffe Hall, Lancashire. Brown's Genesis, II, 913, 914.

Hart, Josyas (in Virginia 1623), "of London, haberdasher." V. M., XIX, 133.

Harvie, John (d. 1807), Albemarle county born at Gargrannock, Scotland. Va. Hist. Col., VI, 83.

Harwood, Arthur (d. 1642), formerly of the parish of St. Peter ad Vincula, London. Mathews' Probate Acts.

Hawker, Edward (in Virginia 1657, &c.) brother of George Hawker, combmaker, of London. V. M., XIII, 307.

Hawley, Jerome (in Virginia 1638, &c.) brother of James Hawley, of Brentford, Middlesex. Neill's Virginia Carolorum, 142.

Hay, Alias Gray, John (d. 1709), Middlesex county son of Dr. Gray, of Kendal and Whitehaven. V. M., II, 45.

Hay, William (1748-1825), Williamsburg son of James Hay, and Helena Rankin his wife, of Kilsyth, Sterlingshire, Scotland. W. M., XV, 85.

Hay, John (in Virginia 176S, &c.), Southampton county brother of William Hay, preceding. W. M., XV, 85.

Hay, Peter (in Virginia 1768, &c.), Southampton county brother of William Hay, preceding. W. M., XV, 85.

Haynes, Herbert (d. 1737), Gloucester county at time of death of St. Peter's, Cornhill, London. In will (1737) speaks of his rents in and about London. Son of Thomas Haynes, of Gloucester county, Va. V. M., XV, 427.

Haynes, Thomas (d. 1679), Northumberland county by will gave his brother, William Haynes, all his estate in houses, &c., in England," which may be known by my father's will." Northumberland Records.

Hayward, Samuel (in Virginia 1687, &c.), Westmoreland county son of Nicholas Hayward, grocer, of London. W. M., XI, 169, 170.

Hazlewood, George (in Virginia 1683, &c.), Middlesex county son of John Hazlewood, of the parish of White Chapel, London. In 1693 his mother is referred to as "Madam Elizabeth Hazlewood at her house in Chamber street, Goodman's Fields, London." Middlesex Records.

Henderson, Alexander (d. 1815), came to Prince William county, Va , 1756 son of Rev. Richard Henderson, A. M., of Glasgow University, forty-eight years minister of Blantyre parish, Scotland, and his wife Janet Cleland. Richmond Critic, June 9, 1889.

Henderson, James (1708-1804), Augusta county son of William Henderson, gent., of Fifeshire, Scotland, who married, on February 7, 1705, Margaret Bruce. "Descendants of Lt. John Henderson."

Herbert, John (1658-1704), Prince George county son of John Herbert, apothecary, and grandson of Richard Herbert, citizen and grocer, of London. W. M., V, 230, 240 VIII, 147, 148.

Heyman, Peter (d. 1700), Elizabeth City county grandson of Sir Peter Heyman, of Summerfield, in Kent. V. M., XI, 158, 159.

Hickes, Stephen (d. shortly before 1640), Elizabeth City county son of Michael Hickes and Judith his wife, of the town of Southampton. Stephen Hickes was baptized September 23, 1620, in the parish of St. Michael's, Southampton. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 47, p. 353.

Hide, John (in Virginia 1635-37, &c.) son of Richard Hide, citizen and free-mason, of London. V. M., XIX, 193.

Higginson, Robert (d. 1649), York county formerly a printer and painter-stainer, of London son of Thomas and Anne Higginson, of Barkeswell, Warwickshire. W. M., VI, 69.

Hill, Edward (in Virginia 1622, &c.), had, then a brother, Mr. John Hill, mercer in Lombard street, and a father-in-law, Mr. Richard Boyle, in Blackfriars, London. Brown's First Republic, p. 513.

Hill, Elizabeth (in Virginia 1677, &c.) wife of Edward Hill, of "Shirley," Charles City county daughter of Sir Edward Williams, of Brecknockshire, Wales. V. M., III, 156-158 X, 107 XIV, 171.

Hill, Henry (d. 1649), Northampton county son of George Hill, of Tiverton, Devon. Northampton Records.

Hill, John (in Virginia 1647, &c.), Lower Norfolk county formerly a bookbinder in the University of Oxford, and son of Stephen Hill, of Oxford, fletcher. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 47, p. 53

Hill, John (d. 1720), of Virginia, but died at Newent, Gloucestershire. V. M., XI, 74.

Hodge, Thomas (d. 1784), King George county in will, 1774, mentions his mother, then living at Tiverton, Devonshire. King George Records.

Hodge, Robert (d. 1681), Lower Norfolk county in 1670, was of Modbury, Devon. Lower Norfolk Records.

Hodgkin, William (came to Virginia 1659, d. 1673), old Rappahannock county brother-in-law of Robert Peachey, of Mildenhall, Suffolk. Rappahannock County Records.

Holecroft, Thomas (in Virginia 1610, &c.) son of Sir Thomas Holecroft, of Vale Royal, Cheshire. Brown's Genesis, II, 924, 925.

Holford, Thomas (in Virginia 1668, &c.) son of John Holford, of Davenham, Cheshire, and his wife Jane, daughter of Thomas Mallory, Dean of Chester. V. M., III, 328.

Holland, Samuel (in Virginia 1638, &c.) son of Joseph Holland, citizen and clothworker, of London. W. G., 9.

Holt, James (in Virginia 1623), "of London, carpenter." V. M., XIX, 134.

Honeywood, Sir Philip (in Virginia 1649, &c.) son of Robert Honeywood, of Charing, Kent, and Mark's Hall, Essex. Virginia Land Grants. Norwood's Voyage to Virginia. Note to Pepys.

Hooke, Francis (in Virginia 1635, &c.), Elizabeth City son of John Hooke, Esq., of Bramshott, Southampton. V. M., III, 23.

Hooper, Joseph (in Virginia 1729, &c.) son of George Hooper, of Frome Selwood, Somerset. Cabells and Their Kin, 21.

Hope, George (1749- ), Elizabeth City county born in Cumberland. W. M., VIII, 257.

Hornsby, Thomas (1702-1772), Williamsburg born in Lincolnshire. Va. Hist. Col., VI, 72.

Horsmanden, Warham (in Virginia 1657, &c.), Charles City county returned to England and was of Lenham, Kent, and Purleigh, Essex son of Rev. Daniel Horsmanden, Rector of Ulcombe, Kent, and his wife Ursula, daughter of Sir Warham St. Leger, of Ulcombe. V. M., XV, 181, 182.

Horsenail, James (d. 1731), Spotsylvania county brother of Thomas Horsenail, of the parish of Nazing, Essex. Spotsylvania Records.

Hosyer, Edward (in Virginia 1623), "of Ratcliffe, vintner." V. M., XIX, 133, 134.

Hothersall, Thomas (came to Virginia 1621), "late zitysone and grosser of London." Brown's First Republic, p. 116.

Howett, John (d. 1659), Elizabeth City county brother of Thomas Howett, citizen and cooper, of London. V. M., XIII, 55.

Hudson, William (died before 1716) brother of John Hudson, of Bristol, clothier, (who d. 1725). V. M., XV, 63.

Hume, Francis (d. 1721), Spotsylvania county brother of George Hume, of Wedderburn, Scotland (who d. 1720). W. M., VI, 253 VIII, 84, &c.

Hume, George (1697-1760), Spotsylvania and Culpeper counties, &c. son of George Hume, of Wedderburn. W. M., VI, 251, &c.

Hunt, Rev. Robert (in Virginia 1607, &c.), of Kent, formerly Vicar of Reculver, Kent. Campbell's History of Virginia.

Hunter, William, Jr. (1731-1792) born at Galston, Scotland. "Lodge of Washington," 95.

Hussey, Giles (d. 1668), Rappahannock county son of James Hussey, Esq., of Blanford, Dorset, and brother of Thomas Hussey, of the same place, who was living in 1668. Hayden, 298.

Hutt, Daniel (d. 1674), Westmoreland county formerly merchant of London, and at another time master of the ship Mayflower. W. M., XV, 49. Westmoreland Records.

Irbye, Walter (d. 1652), Northampton county bequeathed tenements in Hoggstrap, Lincolnshire. V. M., XVII, 67.

Isham, Henry (1626-1676), in Henrico county 1657, &c. son of William Isham (b. 1578, d. before 1631), and his wife Mary, daughter of William Brett, of Toddington, Bedfordshire, and grandson of Sir Euseby Isham, of Pytchley. V. M., IV, 123. Victorian History of England, Northamptonshire.

Iveson, Thomas (in Virginia 1700, &c.), Middlesex county son of David Iveson, citizen and joiner, of London. Middlesex Records.

Jackson, Rev. Andrew (d. 1710), Lancaster county brother of James Jackson, living in Potters' Fields near Belfast, Ireland. Lancaster Records.

Jackson, Charles (in Virginia 1667, &c.) son of Charles Jackson, of Darrington, Yorkshire.

Familiae Minorum Gentium, III, 1070.

Jacquelin, Edward (1668-1739), Jamestown son of John and Elizabeth (Craddock) Jacquelin, of Kent. W. M., IV, 49, 50.

Jauncey, William (d. 1697), Lancaster county had a brother John living at "Phen in Stratford, Buckinghamshire", and a sister Mary Boteler's children living at ''Pharington, in Barkshire." W. M., XI, 210.

Jenifer, Daniel (in Virginia 1677, &c.), Northampton county "brother" of John Steventon, merchant, of Creed Church Fryers, London. Middlesex Records.

Jenings, Edmund (1659-1729), York county son of Sir Edmund Jenings, of Ripon, Yorkshire. V. M., XII, 307-310.

Jerdone, Francis (1721-1771), Louisa county son of John Jerdone, a magistrate of Jedburgh, Scotland. W. M., VI, 37, 38.

Jermy, William (d. 1666), Lower Norfolk county in 1659 was "of Kettlebaston, Suffolk, gent." N. E. H. & G. Reg., 1893, pp. 352, 355. Lower Norfolk Records.

Johnson, Luke (d. 1659) nephew of John Turton, of West Bromwich, County Stafford, gent. V. M., XI, 366.

Johnson, Richard (d. 1698), King and Queen county. The account preserved in Virginia states that by his first marriage he had a daughter Judith, educated at a school in Lincoln, who m. Sir Hardoff Wastneys, about 1700. Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetage states that Sir Hardoff Wastneys, Bart , m. Judith, daughter and heir of Col. Richard Johnson, of Bilsby, Lincolnshire. W. M., VI, 59, &c. Burke's Ex. and Dorm. Baronetage.

Johnson, Mrs. Susanna (1664-1686), New Kent county (now King and Queen) wife of Col. Richard Johnson, and daughter of William Duncombe, Esq., of Holbeach, in the county of Lincoln. Epitaph in King and Queen county.

Johnson, William (in Virginia 1688, &c.), Middlesex county of Norwich. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Johnston, Andrew (1742-1785), Petersburg "of Glasgow in Scotland." W. M., IV, 232.

Jones, Cadwallader (in Virginia 1681, &c.), Stafford county son of Richard Jones, of London, merchant (lately deceased in 1681), who, together with John Jeffries, of London, owned the manor of Ley, in the parish of Beerfereis, Devon. V. M., II, 31.

Jones, Mrs. Dorothy (1642- ) wife of Roger Jones, of Virginia, and daughter of John Walker, Esq. (d. 1659), of Mansfield, Nottinghamshire. Descendants of Capt. Roger Jones, pp. 34, 49, 196.

Jones, Rev. Emanuel (1668-1739), Gloucester county son of John Jones, of Anglesea. W. M., II, 150.

Jones, Rev. Rowland (1644-1688), York county son of Rowland Jones, of Kimbell, Bucks. W. M., II, 150 V, 195. Foster's Oxford Matriculations.

Jones, William (in Virginia 1640, &c.) born about 1614 at Ruthen, in the county of Denbigh. Maryland Archives.

Jones, William (in Virginia 1623), "in London, joyner." V. M., XIX, 132.

Jordan, Mrs. Alice (d. 1650), Surry county wife of George Jordan, and daughter of John Myles, gent., of Braunston, near Hereford. W. M., IV, 196 V, 6.

Joye, William (in Virginia 1619, &c.) son of Robert Joye, and nephew of Thomas Stacie, gent., of Maidstone, Kent. V. M., XIII, 405.

Kay, James (died in 1677), Rappahannock county "a Lancashire man." W. M., VII, 115, 118.

Kay, William (was dead in 1726), Rappahannock county "a Lancashire man." W. M., VII, 118.

Kelloway, William (b. about 1603, in Virginia 1623), "of Porchmouth (Portsmouth), husbandman." V. M., XIX, 133.

Kelsick, Richard (died about 1760), Norfolk Borough formerly of Whitehaven. Lower Norfolk County, Va., Antiquary, I, 7.

Kempe, William (in Virginia 1623), "of Howes in Leicestershire, gent." V. M., XIX, 132.

Kendall, William (d. 1686), Northampton county legacies to his brother John Kendall, "living about Brinton in Norfolk," and to brother Thomas Kendall, of Norwich. Northampton Records.

Kennedy, Alexander (d. 1760), Elizabeth City county bequests to Christ Church parish, Cork, Ireland to the poor of that city, &c. Elizabeth City Records.

Keston, Thomas (in Virginia 1667, &c.) brother of Francis Keston, of All Saints' Barking, London, who left a legacy to the poor of Great Bowden, Leicestershire. V. M., XI, 309.

Kingswell, Edward, Esq. (1578-1636), in Virginia 1633 in 1633 was of St. Sepulchres, London. Chester's Faculty Office Marriage Licenses. V. M., XV, 297, &c.

Kingswell, Jane (b. about 1593), in Virginia 1633 wife of Edward Kingswell (marriage license February 27, 1632-3), and before widow of Sir William Clifton, of Little Gidding, Huntingdonshire. Chester's Faculty Office Marriage Licenses. V. M., XV, 297, &c.

Knight, Nathaniel, chirurgeon (d. 1677), Surry county son of Samuel Knight, of Stroodwater, Gloucestershire. Surry Records.

Landon, Thomas (d. 1701), Middlesex county son of Silvanus Landon, of Crednall, or Credenhill, Herefordshire. V. M., II, 430, 433. Keith's Ancestry of Benjamin Harrison.

Langborne, William (1723-1766), King William county son of Robert Langborne, of Fetter Lane, London. W. M., IV, 166.

Lathbury, John (d. 1655), formerly citizen and pewterer of London. V. M., XII, 406.

Lawne, Christopher (d. 1620), Charles City of Blanford, Dorset. Lea's P. C. C. Abstracts, 1620.

Lawrence, Rev. John (d. 1684), Lower Norfolk county baptized at Wormleyberry House, parish of Wormley, Herefordshire son of John and Dorothy Lawrence. He bequeathed six tenements in Church Lane, in the parish of St. Giles in the Fields, London. V. M., II, 176.

Le Breton, John in Northumberland county, Va., 1664, &c. Had a brother, Edward Le Breton, of the Island of Jersey. Northumberland Records.

Lee, Peter (d. before 1688), Henrico county brother of Richard Lee, of London, gent., who was alive 1686. Henrico Records.

Lee, Dr. William (in Virginia 1660, &c.) brother of George Lee, citizen and grocer, of London.

Lightfoot, Philip (d. 1708), York, &c., counties son of John Lightfoot, Esq., of Gray's Inn. W. M., II, 91-97 III, 104, &c.

Lightfoot, John (d. 1707), New Kent county brother of Philip Lightfoot, preceding. W. M., II, 204. V. M., VII, 397.

Lindsay, Rev. David (1603-1667), Northumberland county eldest son of Sir Hierome Lindsay, of The Mount, Lord Lyon King at Arms, Scotland. V. M., XVIII, 90-92.

Lindsay, John (in Virginia about 1675), in 1682 was of Bradwinch, Devon. Middlesex Records.

Lister, Thomas (1708-1740) son of James Lister, of Shibden Hall, Yorkshire. W. M., III, 245, 246.

Lister, William (1712-1743) brother of Thomas Lister, preceding. W. M., III, 245.

Littleton, Nathaniel (d. 1654), Northampton county son of Sir Edward Littleton, of Henley, Shropshire. W. M., VIII, 230, 231 IX, 62. V. M., XVIII, 20.

Lloyd, Cornelius (in Virginia 1635, &c.), Lower Norfolk county formerly "of London, merchant." N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 47, p. 69.

Lloyd, John (in Virginia 1692, &c.), Rappahannock and Richmond counties removed to England in 1694, was at one time of the city of Chester, and in 1716 described as "John Lloyd, of Bacheckrick, County Denbigh, Esq." V. M., V, 160-161. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 59, p. 219.

Lloyd, Thomas (d. 1699), Richmond county brother of John Lloyd, preceding. V. M., V, 160-161. Richmond County Records. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 59, p. 219.

Lloyd, William (in Virginia 1667, &c.) (father of John and Thomas Lloyd.) W. M., XVII, 75.

Lluellin, Daniel (d. 1664), Charles City county formerly of Chelmsford, Essex. V. M., XIII, 53, &c.

Lockey, Edward (d. 1667), York county brother of John Lockey, merchant, of London. W. M., III, 278.

Lockley, William (d. 1745), owned freeholds in "poor Jury Lane als Crutched Fryars, parish St. Catherine Cree Church and Christ Church, London" his mother Jane, was, in 1738, wife of Joseph Studley, of Nicholas Lane, London, gent.

Lomax, John (1674-1729), Essex and Caroline counties son of Rev. John Lomax, M. A., of Emanuel College, Cambridge Rector of Wooler, Northumberland, who was evicted in 1662, and died at North Shields, 1674. Lomax Bible Record, &c.

Lovelace, Francis (in Virginia 1651, &c.) son of Sir William Lovelace, of Woodwich, Kent, and brother of Richard Lovelace, the poet, was afterwards Governor of New York. V. M., XVII, 287.

Lowe, Micajah, merchant (d. 1704), Charles City county, but died at Carshaulton, Surrey, England nephew of Micajah Perrry [sic], merchant, of London. V. M., XL 310.

Lownds, John (in Virginia 1654, &c.), Lower Norfolk county brother of Nathaniel Lownds, of London, merchant. John Lounds was entitled to certain lands, &c., at Salford, in the county of Lancaster, formerly the property of Edmund Knott, whose right heir he was. Lower Norfolk Records.

Ludlow, Francis (d. about 1670), son of Gabriel Ludlow had a brother, Mr. John Ludlow, who died about the same time. Col. John Carter was administrator of Francis Ludlow. Lancaster Records. W. G., 172, 276.

Ludlow, George (1596-1656), York county son of Thomas Ludlow, Esq., of Dinton, Wiltshire. W. G., 172, 276. W. M., II, 4, 5.

Ludlow, Thomas (1624-1660), York county son of Gabriel Ludlow, Barister at Law. W. G., 172, 276. W. M., II, 4, 5.

Ludwell, Thomas (d. 1698), James City county son of Thomas Ludwell, of Bruton, Somerset, mercer, and his wife Jane, daughter of James Cottington, of Discoe, in the parish of Bruton, gent., and niece of Francis, Lord Cottington. W. M., I, 110.

Ludwell, Philip (in Virginia 1675, &c.), James City county brother of Thomas Ludwell, preceding.

Luke, George (in Virginia 1690, &c.), Westmoreland county son of Oliver Luke, Esq., of Woodend, Bedfordshire. V. M., III, 167, 168.

Lunsford, Sir Thomas (1610-1653), James City county son of Thomas Lunsford, Esq., of Lunsford and Wilegh, Sussex, and his wife Katherine, daughter of Sir Thomas Fludd, Treasurer of War to Queen Elizabeth. V. M., XVII, 26-33.

Lupo, Philip (d. 1670), Isle of Wight county son of Philip Lupo, goldsmith, of London. Isle of Wight Records.

Lyde, Cornelius (d. 1737), King William county son of Lyonel Lyde, Esq., Mayor of Bristol (who d. 1744). W. M., VII, 138. Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetage.

Lyde, Stephen (1681-1715), Essex county son of Cornelius Lyde, Esq., of Staunton Wick, Somerset. Essex Records. Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetage.

Lynch, Head (baptized November 12, 1712, at Staple, Kent), Caroline county, 1739, &c. son of John Lynch, Esq., of Groves in Staple, Kent, and his wife Sarah, daughter of Francis Head, Esq., of Rochester, Kent. Pedigrees from the Visitation of Kent, 1663-68, pp. 46, 49. Berry's Kentish Pedigrees. V. M., XIV, 341 XV, 11, 118.

Lynn, Dr. William (d. 1758), Spotsylvania county brother of Charles and Audley Lynn, of Ireland kinsman of Moses Lynn in Strabane and Lieutenant Mathew Lynn, near Londonderry, Ireland. Spotsylvania Records.

Mcadam, Joseph (in Virginia 1769, &c.), Northumberland county married at Govan, Scotland, to Janet Muir.

Mcpherson, Archibald (1705-1749), Fredericksburg "born in the county of Murray, in North Briton." W. M., X, 108.

Mackie, John (1731-1750), Petersburg son of Patrick Mackie, merchant, and provost of Wigton, Scotland. W. M., V, 237.

Mackie, Rev. Josias (d. 1716), Norfolk county son of Patrick Mackie, of St. Johnstone, county of Donegal, Ireland. W. M., VII, 358, 359.

Mcrae, Rev. Christopher (1733-1808), in Virginia before 1765 Surry and Cumberland counties entered Marischal College, Aberdeen, in 1749 and was graduated M. A. in 1753 son of Christopher McRae, of Urquhart, Rosshire. Anderson's Records of Marischal College, Vol. II, p. 320. Meade's Old Churches and Families of Virginia, II, 36, 37.

Mallory, Rev. Philip (1617-1661), York county son of Thomas Mallory, D. D., Dean of Chester, and grandson of Sir William Mallory, of Studley, Yorkshire. V. M., XII, 398, 399 XIV, 102.

Mallory, Roger (in Virginia 1660, &c.), King and Queen county son of Thomas Mallory, D. D., Rector of Eccleston, Lancashire, and grandson of Thomas Mallory, Dean of Chester. V. M., XII, 401 XV, 106.

Mallory, Thomas (in Virginia 1660, &c.) brother of Roger Mallory, preceding. V. M., XII, 401 XV, 106.

Manfield, George (d. 1670), Surry county nephew of John Beale, citizen and grocer, of London. V. M., XI, 311.

Martin, Henry, "went to Virginia many years ago," (statement in will 1786) brother of Sparks Martin, Esq., of Withy Bush House, County Pembroke, who d. 1787. V. M., XIII, 197.

Martin, John, "went to Virginia many years ago" brother of Henry Martin, preceding. V. M., XIII, 197-199.

Martin, John (in Virginia 1752, &c.), King and Queen and Caroline counties in 1752 was attorney for John and George Martin, of Plymouth. Possibly this John Martin was identical with the preceding. Caroline County Records. V. M., XIII, 197-199.

Martin, John (in Virginia 1607, &c.) son of Sir Richard Martin, goldsmith, of London. Brown's Genesis, II, 943-944.

Martin, Ralph (in Virginia 1623), "of Bachain, Somersetshire, husbandman." V. M., XIX, 134.

Matthews, Luke (in Virginia 1694, &c.) formerly a tailor in the city of Hereford. V. M., IV, 365 VI, 408, 409.

Maury, Mrs. Ann (1690- ), Henrico county wife of Matthew Maury, and sister of Rev. James Fontaine (above). Huguenot Emigration, 122.

Maury, Matthew (d. 1752), Henrico county of Castle Mauron, Gascony, France. Huguenot Emigration, 122.

Maxwell, James (d. 1795), Norfolk Borough of Northumberland. Lower Norfolk county, Va., Antiquary, II, 56, &c.

Mayo, William (1684-1744), Goochland county son of Joseph Mayo and Elizabeth (Hooper) Mayo, of Frome Selwood. Richmond Standard, July, 1880. Cabells and Their Kin.

Mayo, Joseph (1692- ), Henrico county brother of William Mayo, preceding. Richmond Standard, July 17, 1880. Cabells and Their Kin.

Meade, Mrs. Susannah, wife of David Meade, of Nansemond county (married 1729-30), and daughter of Sir Richard Everard, Bart., of Much Waltham, Essex. W. M., XIII, 39, 40.

Mercer, Burradine (in Virginia 1654, &c.) brother of William Mercer, citizen and haberdasher, of London. V. M., XIV, 425.

Mercer, James (d. 1759), Stafford county brother of John Mercer (next). V. M., XIV, 233, 234.

Mercer, John (1704-1768), Stafford county born in Church street, Dublin, Ireland son of John and Grace (Fenton) Mercer of that city. V. M., XIV, 232-234.

Mercer, Hugh (1726-1777), Fredericksburg (but settled first in Pennsylvania) son of Rev. William Mercer, minister of Pittsligo, Aberdeenshire, and his wife Ann, daughter of Sir Robert Munro, of Foulis. Goolrick's Life of General Hugh Mercer, pp. 12, 13, 105.

Metcalfe, Richard (in Virginia 1688, &c.) son of Gilbert Metcalfe, merchant, of London, and Jane, his wife. W. M., V, 10-12.

Metcalfe, Thomas (1734- ), King and Queen county son of Samuel Metcalfe, grocer, of Nantwich, Chesire. W. M., V, 13, 14.

Michaux, Abraham (d. 1717), Henrico county born at Sedan, in France. Henrico Records.

Michelson, John (d. 1750), Yorktown? son of James Michelson, jeweller, in Edinburgh. Will, P. C. C., Glazier 227.

Middleton, Robert (d. 1627) brother of William Middleton, of Hampton, Yorkshire. W. G., 1022.

Mills, Charles (d. before 1783), Hanover county owned a farm called Goringe in the parish of Thundersley, North Ben Fleet, Essex, and a farm called Sayers, Sawyers or Grey House in the same parish and county both held of the manor of Eastwood or Eastonbury, Essex, which were sold by his heirs in 1783. Hanover County Records.

Molesworth, Guy (in Virginia 1651, &c.) son of William Molesworth, Esq., and grandson of Anthony Molesworth, Esq., of Fotheringay, Northamptonshire. Burke's Peerage. Minutes of Virginia Council.

Montague, Peter (1603-1659), Lancaster county son of Peter and Eleanor Montague, of Boveny, parish of Burnham, Bucks. Montague Genealogy, pp. 30, 31 and chart.

Moon, John (d. 1655), Isle of Wight county born at Berry, near Gosport, in the parish of Stoak in Hampshire bequeathed lands at Berry and Alverstoak, near Gosport and Plymouth. W. M., VII, 222.

Moryson, Charles (d. 1688), Elizabeth City county son of Richard Moryson and Winifred his wife, and grandson of Sir Richard Moryson, of Tooley Park, Leicestershire. V. M., II, 384, 385. W. M., IX, 92-94, 119-121, 122.

Moryson, Francis (in Virginia 1649, &c.), Elizabeth City county and Jamestown son of Sir Richard Moryson, of Tooley Park, Leicestershire. V. M., II, 384, 385. W. M., IX, 119, &c.

Moryson, Richard (d. 1646), Elizabeth City county brother of Francis Moryson, preceding. V. M., II, 383-385.

Moryson, Robert (d. 1647), Elizabeth City county brother of Francis Moryson, preceding. V. M., II, 383-385. W. M., IX, 122-123.

Moseley, William (d. 1655), Lower Norfolk county formerly of Rotterdam, merchant but of English birth or descent. Lower Norfolk Records.

Moulle, William (in Virginia 1655, &c.), Northampton county brother of Francis Moulle, of Ashby Folwell in the county of Leicester, gent., (alive 1656). Northampton Records.

Moulson, Fulke (in Virginia 1674, &c.) brother of Peter Moulson, of London, gent., who mentions in his will his nephew, Peter Moulson, of Warton, als Wavlston, and states that he (the testator) was born in the parish of Warton, Cheshire. V. M., XIII, 403, 404.

Mountjoy, Edward (in Virginia 1695, &c.), Westmoreland county brother of Thomas Mountjoy, of Bristol, merchant. V. M., XVI, 291.

Moye, John (d. 1645), Lower Norfolk county married a daughter of Richard Wheeler, citizen and innholder, of London. V. M., XIII, 407. N. Y. Gen. & Biog. Record, XL, 86.

Musco, Salvator (b. 1704, d. 1741), Essex in his will states that his sister, Mrs. Jane Collingwood, of Great Britain, had, in her will dated September 30, 1730, left him ,£ 400. Essex Records.

Musgrave, Michael (d. 1697), Middlesex county brother of Thomas Musgrave, Rector of Woolbeding, Essex, and Prebendary of Chichester (who d. 1725). V. M., XII, 207, 208 XIV, 93, 94.

Nash, John (d. 1776), Henrico and Prince Edward counties son of Abner Nash, of Tenby, in South Wales. Henrico and Prince Edward Records.

Nash, Thomas (d. 1737), Henrico county brother of John Nash, preceding. Henrico Records.

Nedham, James (d. 1677) brother of George Nedham, Esq., and son of Barbara Nedham, deceased. V. M., XI, 75.

Needler, Benjamin (d. 1741), King and Queen county son of Culverwell Needler, clerk assistant to the House of Commons. V. M., XIV, 26.

Nelson, Nathaniel, merchant (d. before 1696), New Kent county brother of Henry Nelson, of Penrith, Cumberland, yeoman. Middlesex Records.

Nelson, Thomas (1677-1745), Yorktown son of Hugh Nelson, gent., and Sarah his wife, of Penrith. V. M., XIII, 402, 403.

Newce, Sir William (in Virginia 1622) formerly of Bandon, Cork, Ireland, but of English birth. Neill's Virginia Carolorum, 81, 82.

Newce, Thomas (in Virginia 1622, &c.), brother of Sir William Newce, preceding. Neill's Virginia Carclorum.

Newman, Edward (in Virginia 1672 &c.), nephew of Zacharie Irish, one of the petty canons of the chapel of Windsor Castle. W. G., 1017.

Newton, John (d. 1697), Westmoreland county had lived at Anlaby, Yorkshire eldest son of Thomas Newton, of Hull. John Newton bequeathed lands at Carlton and Camelsforth, Yorkshire, and the house in Hull "which was my father's." V. M., I, 69. Westmoreland Records.

Nicholson, James (d. 1686), Middlesex county of Ixby, Cumberland. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Nicolls, Richard, tailor (in Virginia 1650, &c.), Lower Norfolk county son of Henry Nicolls, innholder, dwelling at the sign of the White Horse, Oxenbury, Huntingdonshire. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 47, p. 353.

Nicolson, James (1711-1773), Williamsburg born at Inverness, Scotland. Va. Hist. Col., XI, 73.

Nimmo, William (d. 1748), Williamsburg brother of John Nimmo, of Blackridge, in the county of Linlithgow, Scotland. W. M., V, 134-136.

Norton, John (1719-1777), York county son of John Norton and his wife Susanna, daughter of Henry Hatley. Norton Family Records.

Nourse, James (1731-1784) born at Weston-under-Penyard, Herefordshire, July 19, 1731 son of John Nourse. V. M., VII, 199. Life of James Nourse.

Noye, Philip (d. 1650) returned to England and at death was "of Burian now of St. Just, Cornwall, "first cousin of Attorney-General William Noye. V. M., XIV, 424, 425.

Oldis, William (in Virginia 1668, &c.), Isle of Wight county brother of Valentine Oldis, citizen and apothecary, of London. W. M., VII, 226.

Oliver, William (d. 1686), Middlesex county of the Isle of Ely near Cambridge. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Opie, Thomas, Jr. (d. 1702), Northumberland county "of Bristol." (Epitaph). W. M., XI, 129.

Oswald, Henry, chirurgeon (d. 1726), Essex county in his will refers to his lands and houses in Scotland, particularly "the house where Provost Henry Oswald lived." Essex Records.

Overton, Mrs. Elizabeth, wife of William Overton (b. 1628), King William county daughter of Ann Waters, of St. Sepulchre's, London, widow (d. 1697). V. M., XI, 305, 306.

Owen, Rev. Gronowy (1722-1770), Williamsburg and Brunswick county born at Llanfair Mathafan, Wales son of Owen Gronowy. W. M., IX, 152-154

Oxwick, Thomas, "of London, living some time in Virginia" (1646) son of Francis Oxwick, of London, merchant, and his wife Susan, daughter of Thomas Corbett, D. D., of Stanway, County Essex. Genealogist (N. S.), XXIII, 122.

Pacy, George (in Virginia 1623), "of London, grocer." V. M., XIX, 134.

Page, John (1627-1692), York county son of Francis Page, gent, of Bedfont, Middlesex. Page Family (1893), 9-40.

Pannill, Robert (d. 1717), Richmond county made bequest to the poor of St. Sepulchre's parish, London, and to his wife's brother, Henry Williamson, in London. W. M., XVII, 180.

Parke, Rev. Henry (in Virginia 1653, &c.), Accomac county in 1653 owned a tract of land in Accomac in partnership with George Parke, of Doncaster, merchant. Accomac Records.

Parke, Mrs. Rebecca, wife of Daniel Parke, of York county (d. 1672), daughter of George Evelyn and grand-daughter of Robert Evelyn, of Long Ditton, Surrey. V. M., IX, 173 XIV, 174, 175.

Parker, George (in Virginia before 1673) son of James Parker, and grandson of William Parker, Archdeacon of Cornwall, who lived at Trangoe, in the parish of Wartegin, Cornwall. V. M., V, 442-444 XIX, 191, 192.

Parker, James (in Virginia 1687, &c.), New Kent county of Southwell, Nottinghamshire. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Parker, Philip (in Virginia 1656, &c.), Northampton county brother of Thomas Parker, citizen and draper, of London. Northampton Records.

Parker, Dr. Richard (in Virginia before 1673) brother of George Parker, preceding. V. M., V, 443.

Parker, Robert (d. 1673), Northampton county was of Bosham, Sussex, at time of death bequeathed in will his land at Bosham and Meadhurst sold or leased about 1656 land called Coper's (or Soper's) Hall states in will that his father and grandfather were buried in the Church of St. Lawrence. Southampton. V. M., XVII, 65-67.

Pawlett, Thomas (1578-1644), Charles City county son of Chidiock Pawlett, and grandson of William Pawlett, 1st Marquis of Winchester. Thomas Pawlett in his will mentions his brother Chidiock Pawlett, and leaves most of his estate to his brother, Sir John Pawlett, who, in 1665, was of Winchester. W. M., IV, 151-153. Brown's Genesis, II, 962. Collins' Peerage.

Payne, Nicholas (in Virginia 1687, &c.), Middlesex county of London. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Peachey, Samuel (d. 1712), Richmond county son of Robert Peachey and Anne (Hogskin) his wife, of Milden Hall, Suffolk. W. M., III, 111-113.

Peale, Malachy (in Virginia 1674, &c.), Westmoreland county in 1673 was of Exeter, Devon. Westmoreland Records.

Pegden, John (d. in Virginia 1623), James City "of London, gent." V. M., XIX, 133.

Percy, George (1580-1632), 8th son of Henry, 8th Earl of Northumberland. Brown's Genesis, II, 964.

Perin, John (in Virginia 1686, &c.), Middlesex county of Sussex. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Perry, Peter (in Virginia 1685, &c.), York county brother of Micajah Perry, merchant, of St. Catherine Cree, London. W. M., XVII, 265.

Perry, Robert (in Virginia 1652, &c.) son of Mrs. Elizabeth Perry, and nephew of Robert Perry, of Bristol, clerk. V. M., XI, 363.

Peter, John (d. 1763), Surry county son of Thomas Peter and brother of Alexander Peter, of Glasgow, Scotland.

Peter, Walter (in Virginia 1763, &c.) brother of John Peter, preceding. Surry Records.

Pettus, Theodore (in Virginia 1623) "of Norwich, gent." V. M., XIX, 133.

Peyton, Robert (1640-1694), Gloucester county son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Yelverton) Peyton, of Rougham, Norfolk, and grandson of Sir Edward Peyton, Bart., of Isleham, Cambridgeshire. Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, 461-468.

Peyton, Henry (1630-1659), Westmoreland county son of Henry Peyton, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn (d. 1656), and brother of Sir Robert Peyton, Knt., of East Barnet (d. 1689). Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, 490, &c.

Peyton, Valentine (1627-1665), Westmoreland county brother of Henry Peyton, preceding. Hayden, 480-488.

Phillips, John (in Virginia 1704, &c.) uncle of Robert Phillips, of Bristol, mariner. V. M., XIII, 308.

Pigot, John (in Virginia 1654, &c.), Lower Norfolk county formerly citizen and merchant tailor, of London. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 47, p. 20.

Pitt, Robert (d. 1714), Northampton county bequeathed his rights in tenements, premises, &c., under the will of his mother, Mrs. Mary Pitt, of Bristol. Northampton Records.

Place, Rowland (1642-1713), of Dimsdale, Yorkshire, Esq. W. M., XV, 49.

Platt, Randol, or Randolph (d. about 1719), New Kent and Prince George counties son of William Platt, of the parish of Prescott, town of Whiston, Lancashire. Prince George Records.

Pleasants, John (1645-1649), Henrico county son of John Pleasants, of Norwich, worstead weaver. V. M., XVII, 320.

Plowden, Sir Edmund (in Virginia 1641, &c., d. 1659), Elizabeth City and Northampton counties son of Francis Plowden, of Plowden, Shropshire. He was in America 1641-48 for the purpose of establishing his colony on the Delaware, but was most of the time in Virginia.

Northampton County Records. N. Y. Gen. and Biog. Record, XL, 87, &c.

Poindexter (Poingdestre), George, York county, 1660, &c. son of Thomas Poingdestre (b. 1581), Seigneur of the fief es Poingdestre, Island of Jersey. V. M., XIX, 215-218.

Poole, William (in Virginia 1623) "of Preston in Andernesse in Lankeshire." V. M., XIX, 132.

Pope, Richard (in Virginia 1690, &c.), Isle of Wight county brother of John Pope, of the parish of Dawlish, mariner. Isle of Wight Records.

Popeley, Richard (in Virginia 1627, &c.), James City county born in 1608 in the parish of Wolley, Yorkshire. W. M., III, 169.

Porteus, Edward (d. 1700), Gloucester county refers in will to his father's estate in Newbottle, Scotland. V. M., XIII, 310, 311.

Poulter, Thomas (in Virginia 1661, &c.) son of John Poulter, of Hitchen, Hertfordshire. W. G., 67, 68.

Povall, Robert (1650-1728), Henrico county formerly of St. Martin's in the Fields, London. Povall Bible Record.

Powell, Thomas (in Virginia 1695, &c.), Middlesex county in 1659 styled "Thomas Powell the younger late of the City of Hereford.'' Middlesex Records.

Powell, Pythogoras (in Virginia 1686, &c.), Middlesex county of Catesby, Northamptonshire. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Power, Dr. Henry (d. 1692), York county son of John Power, Spanish merchant, and his wife __________, daughter of Mr. Jennings, of Kendal, grandson of William Power, and great grandson of Francis Power, of Mossington, Yorkshire. W. M., I, 210-211 VII, 129.

Priest, John (in Virginia 1623), "of Langport in Somersetshire, tayler." V. M., XIX, 134.

Procter, John (in Virginia 1624, &c.) brother of Thomas Procter, citizen of London, who in his will desires to be buried in "great Allhallows," London, and bequeaths lands at Dunmow and Muche Wakeringe, Essex. V. M., XII, 90-92.

Purefoy, Mrs. Lucy (in Virginia 1629, &c.) wife of Thomas Purefoy, of Elizabeth City county (who named one of his Virginia estates "Drayton"). She was born about 1598, "infra Ranson, Leicestershire." V. M., I, 417-418.

Putnam, Thomas (d. 1659) son of William Putnam, of Chessam. V. M., XIV, 305.

Radley, Thomas (d. 1686, Middlesex county) of London. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Rae, Robert (1723-1753, Stafford county) son of Robert Rae, Esq., of Little Govan, near Glasgow, and brother of James Rae, of Glasgow, merchant. Essex Records. Va. Hist. Col., XI, 68.

Ramsay, William (1716-1789), Alexandria a native of Galloway, Scotland. Hayden, 88.

Ramsay, Patrick (in Virginia 1760, &c.), Blandford son of Andrew Ramsay, Provost of Glasgow, Scotland, 1734-5. Slaughter's Bristol Parish, 210.

Randolph, Henry (1623-1673), Henrico county and Jamestown son of William Randolph, of Little Haughton, Northamptonshire, and his wife Dorothy, daughter of Richard Lane, gent., of Courtenhall, and sister of Sir Richard Lane, Attorney General. V. M., III, 261, &c.

Randolph, William (1651-1711), Henrico county son of Richard Randolph, of Morton Hall, Warwickshire, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Ryland. V. M., III, 261, &c.

Reade, George (d. 1671), James City and Gloucester counties son of Robert Reade, of Linkenholt, Hampshire (will dated 1626), and his wife Mildred, daughter of Sir Thomas Windebank, of Haines' Hall, parish of Hurst, Berkshire. V. M., IV, 204-205.

Reeves, George (d. 1689), Middlesex county brother of Charles Reeves, of the parish of Stepney, Middlesex. V. M.. XI, 78.

Renalls, or Reynolds, Thomas (in Virginia 1658, &c.), Lower Norfolk county in 1658 his sister, Elizabeth Renalls, was living in Hallyard's Lane, near St. John's Gate, Bristol. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 47, p. 354.

Richards, Rev. John (1689-1735), Gloucester county formerly Rector of Nettlestead and Vicar of Teston, Kent. Meade, I, 354.

Roane, Charles (in Virginia 1664, &c.), Gloucester county son of Robert Roane, of Chalden, Surrey, gent. V. M., XVI, 66-70.

Roberts, Elias (in Virginia 1624, &c.) son of Elias Roberts, citizen and merchant-tailor, of London. W. G., 29.

Robertson, Archibald (came to Virginia 1746), Prince George county son of William Robertson, merchant and Baillie of Edinburgh, and brother of Arthur Robertson, chamberlain of Glasgow 1766, &c. W. M., V, 185, 186.

Robins, Jeremy (in Virginia 1671, &c.) son of Jeremy Robins, of St. Martin's in the Fields, London, fringeweaver. V. M., XV, 63.

Robins, Obedience (1600-1662), Northampton county born at Brackley, Northamptonshire, April 16, 1600 son of Thomas and Mary (Bulkley) Robins, of Brackley. In 1647 is mention of his brother, Richard Robins, gent., of Longbuckbye, Northamptonshire. Richmond Standard, September 4, 1880, &c.

Robins, Edward (b. 1602), Northampton county came to Virginia in 1632 brother of Obedience Robins, preceding. Richmond Standard, September 4, 1880.

Robinson, Christopher (1645-1692), Middlesex county son of John and Elizabeth Robinson, of Cleasby, Yorkshire, and brother of John Robinson, Bishop of London.

Roche, James, (d. 1652), Isle of Wight county 1649, &c. died at Queen Camell alias East Camell, Somersetshire, England son of Robert Roche, Vicar of Hilton, Dorset, 1617-1629, and brother of Robert Roche, Vicar of East Camell 1635-1666. N. Y. Gen. and Biog. Record, XL, 179, 180.

Rodes, Charles (in Virginia 1695), &c., New Kent county son of John Rodes, of Sturton, and grandson of Sir Francis Rodes, Bart., (d. 1645), of Barlborough, Derbyshire. V. M., VI, 149.

Rodes, Roger (b. about 1604), in Virginia 1623, "of Dowton in Wiltshire." "Mr. Fitzgeffry's servant." V. M., XIX, 134.

Rogers, Edward (in Virginia 1623), Accomac, "of Porberry in Somersetshire, caryer." V. M., XIX, 132.

Rolfe, John (1585-1622), son of John and Dorothea (Mason) Rolfe, of Heacham, Norfolk. V. M., I, 445, &c.

Roper, Thomas (in Virginia 1623), "of Milden in the County of Bedfordshire, gent." V. M., XIX, 133.

Roscow, William (1661-1700), Warrick county born at Chorley in the county of Lancaster. W. M., XIV, 163, 164.

Rose, Rev. Robert (1704-1751), Essex and Albemarle counties born at Wester Alves, Scotland son of John Rose (d. 1724) and Margaret Grant (of Whitetree) his wife. Rose Family Record.

Russell, Thomas (in Virginia 1682, &c.), Lower Norfolk county formerly of the parish of Kirton, Devon. Lower Norfolk Records.

Ryding, Thomas (d. shortly before 1693), Accomac county brother of Hugh Ryding, of Westordby, Lancashire. Accomac Records.

Sandys, George (1577-1643), James City youngest son of Edwin, Archbishop of York. V. M., I, 90.

Sanford, Samuel (d. 1710), Accomac county in will, dated at London, desired to be buried in the parish burying-ground at Avening, Gloucestershire bequeathed a tenement there, and left £ 200 for the education of the poor children of Avening. V. M., April, 1910.

Sanford, John (d. 1693), Princess Anne county brother of preceding. V. M., April, 1910.

Scandrett, Putnam (in Virginia before 1737) in 1737 of Bristol, merchant. Essex Records.

Scandrett, Isaac (in Virginia before 1737), Essex county in 1737 bought lands in Essex county, Va., from Putnam Scandrett, of Bristol, preceding. Essex Records.

Scarburgh, Edmund (d. 1635), Accomac county son of Henry Scarburgh, gent., of North Walsham, Norfolk. V. M., IV, 316, 317 XVII, 321, 322. Northampton county (Va.) records cited by the late T. T. Upshur.

Sclater, John (d. shortly before 1750) "teacher at Col. John Tayloe's in Virginia," Richmond county son of Robert Sclater, merchant, of Paisley, Scotland, and brother of James Sclater, "eldest shoemaker" in Paisley. Essex Records.

Scott, Rev. Alexander (1686-1738), Stafford county son of Rev. John Scott of Dipple parish, Elgin, Morayshire, Scotland. Hayden, 588, &c.

Scott, Rev. James (d. 1782), Prince William county brother of Rev. Alexander Scott, preceding. Hayden, 593, &c.

Scovell, George, merchant (in another document styled "gentleman") (in Virginia 1640, &c.) born "infra" the Isle of Purbeck, Dorset about 39 years old in 1640. Maryland Archives.

Scrivenor, Joseph (1722-1772), Williamsburg born at Oldney, Buckinghamshire. Va. Hist. Col., VI, 71.

Sedgwick, William (d. 1705, York county) late of "burlen hall in Licking Shire" [Lincolnshire]. (Will.) [The testator did not write the will.] W. M., VI, 149, 150.

Sedgwick, Isaac (in Virginia 1705, &c.) brother of William Sedgwick, preceding. W. M., VI, 149, 150.

Semple, James (1730- ), New Kent county son of Rev. James Semple, minister of Long Dreghorn, Ayshire, Scotland. Robertson-Taylor Families.

Semple, John (1727-1790), King and Queen county brother of James Semple, preceding. W. M., IX, 175.

Seward, John (d. 1650), Isle of Wight county formerly of the parish of St. Leonard, Bristol bequeathed lands at Bevington and Baddington, Somersetshire. V. M., X, 406 XIII, 310.

Sexton, Thomas (b. about 1605), d. in Virginia 1623, James City "one of Christ's Hospital." V. M., XIX, 133, 134.

Shepherd, Mrs. Frances (in Virginia 1693, &c.) wife of Rev. John Shepherd, Middlesex county, and sister of John Robinson, Bishop of London. Middlesex Records.

Shepherd, Rev. John (d. 1698), Middlesex county bequest in his will (1682) to "loving brother living at Parham Hatchetan in the County of Suffolk, England." Middlesex Records.

Sherwood, William (d. 1697), Jamestown "born in the parish of White Chappell near London."

Va. Hist. Col., VI, 95. W. M., XIII. 138, 139.

Simpson, John (d. 1688), Middlesex county of Barking, Essex. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Sisson, Thomas (in Virginia 1623) "of London, haberdasher." V. M., XIX, 132.

Sitterne, Edward (in Virginia 1688, &c.), Middlesex county of London. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Skipwith, Sir Grey, Bart. (d. about 1672), Middlesex county son of Sir Henry Skipwith, Bart., of Prestwould, Leicestershire. Middlesex Records. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage.

Skyren, Rev. Henry (1729-1795), King William and Elizabeth City counties born at Whitehaven. Meade, I, 381.

Smith, Austin (in Virginia 1623), James City "of London, carpenter." V. M., XIX, 133, 134.

Smith, Edward (d. 1614) son of Robert Smith. The will of Edward Smith was proved in the diocese of Ely. V. M., XV, 83, 84.

Smith, Mrs. Hannah (in Virginia 1680, &c.), Charles City county wife of Thomas Smith, and daughter of William Daft, wheelwright, of Great Exon, Rutlandshire, and sister, by the mother's side, of Luke Herbert, of Monk's Kirbie parish, Worcestershire, "who died in Peterborough Minster." Henrico Records.

Smith, John (1579-1631) son of George Smith, of Willoughby, Lincolnshire. Brown's Genesis, II, 1006, &c.

Smith, Joseph (d. 1728), Essex mentions in his will his deceased brother, John Smith, late of Bidford, merchant, and his brother James Smith, of Rosse, Ireland. Essex Records.

Smith, Nicholas (1666-1734), King George county born in London, son of Nicholas and Efsobah Smith. W. M., VI, 42.

Smith, William (in Virginia 1666, &c.) brother of Henry Smith, of Watford, Hertfordshire. V. M., XI, 315.

Somerville, James (1742-1798), Caroline county a native of Glasgow. Hayden, 16.

Southey, Henry, Esq. (came to Virginia after 1622) in 1621 was of Rimpton, Somersetshire. Proceedings of Virginia Company. Northampton County Records.

Speke, Thomas (1603-1659), Westmoreland county brother of John Speke, of Bath and Plymouth. W. M., IV, 41.

Spelman, Henry (in Virginia 1613, &c.) son of Erasmus Spelman, and nephew of Sir Henry Spelman. V. M., XV, 304-306.

Spelman, Thomas (1601-1627) brother of Francis Spelman, gent., of Truro, Cornwall. W. G., 72. V. M., I, 195, 196.

Spencer, Mrs. Judith (in Virginia 1686, &c.), Middlesex county of Kent.Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Spencer, Nicholas (d. 1689), Westmoreland county son of Nicholas Spencer, Esq., of Cople, Bedfordshire, and his wife Mary, daughter of Sir Edward Gostwick, Bart., of Wellington, Bedfordshire.V. M., II, 32-34 IV, 451, &c.

Spicer, Arthur (d. 1700), Richmond county brother of John Spicer, and son of Alice Spicer, widow, of Richmond, Surrey. Richmond County Records.

Spotswood, Alexander (1676-1740), Spotsylvania county son of Dr. Robert Spotswood, surgeon in the English army, and grandson of Sir Robert Spotswood, President of the Court of Sessions, Scotland .Spotswood Letters, I, vii-xv.

Spring, Robert (in Virginia 1680, &c.), York county in 1679 described as "late of London, merchant." York County Records.

Stevens, William (in Virginia 1651, &c.), Northampton county son of John Stevens, of Lebourn, in the parish of Buckingham. Virginia Carolorum, 207.

Stewart, William (d. 1786), Surry county refers in will (1785) to lands devolving on him in Argyleshire, Scotland, known as Ackinskee. Surry Records.

Stone, John (in Virginia 1687, &c.), Middlesex county of Ridgely, Staffordshire. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Stone, Moyses (b. about 1605, in Virginia 1623), Elizabeth City "of Longworth in Barkshire." V. M., XIX, 133, 134.

Stone, William (1603-1695), Northampton county to 1633, &c. born in Northamptonshire nephew of Thomas Stone, haberdasher, of London.V. M., III, 272, 273.

Story, Thomas (in Virginia 1687), &c., Middlesex county of Colchester, Essex. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Strachan, Dr. Alexander Glas (1748- ), Petersburg born at Lucar, twelve miles from Edinburgh, July 29, 1748 son of Joseph Strachan, of Edinburgh, and his wife, who was the youngest daughter of Alexander Glas, of Edinburgh, writer to the signet. Strachan Family Record.

Strachey, William (d. 1634), Jamestown son of William Strachey, of Saffron Walden, Essex. W. M., V, 6 IX, 43.

Strachey, William (d. 1686), Gloucester county son of William Strachey, of Saffron Walden, Essex. . W. M., IV, 192-194 V, 6.

Strachey, Dr. John (1709-1756), King and Queen county son of John Strachey, of Sutton Court, Chew Magna, Somersetshire.W. M., IV, 192-194 V, 6.

Stratton, Joseph (d. 1640 or 1641), Nutmeg Quarter and James City county youngest son of Thomas Stratton, gent, of Shotley, Suffolk, and Dedham, Essex. In the "Book of the Strattons" this descent is given on the authority of an eminent genealogist but the only evidence cited is the fact that Thomas Stratton had a son Joseph, and that a daughter of John Stratton, of New England (who was certainly a grandson of Thomas Stratton), sued Joseph Stratton, of Virginia, for money due her father and her uncle William Stratton. Book of Strattons, &c., by Harriet B. Stratton, pp. 42, 75, &c.

Sutherland, John (d. 1765), Spotsylvania county son of John Sutherland, of Winbreck, Orkney Islands, Scotland. Spotsylvania Records.

Swale, William (d. 1734), formerly of Colchester. V. M., XI, 145.

Syberrye, George (in Virginia 1623), "of London, Tallowchandler." V. M., XIX, 133.

Taberer, John (d. 1654), Isle of Wight county son of William Taberer, of the county of Derby. W. M., VII, 221.

Tanner, Daniel (in Virginia 1640, &c.), Lower Norfolk county. He was married to Charity _________ , on November 24, 1614, at St. Paul's Church, Canterbury, and had a son John, baptized October 14, 1627. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 47, p. 354.

Tatham, William (1752-1817, &c.), Richmond, &c. came to Virginia 1769 son of Rev. Sandford Tatham, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Marsden, Esq., of Denningtoa Hall. V. M., VIII, 330.

Tayloe, William (d. 1710), Richmond county. There is a letter, dated 1705, from his brother Joseph Tayloe to their sister-in-law, "Mrs. Ruth Tayloe, Basinghall Street, London, Under Cover to Mr. Benjamin Tayloe, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London." Richmond and Lancaster Records.

Taylor, Philip (in Virginia 1640, &c.), Accomac county born in the parish of Marden, Herefordshire about thirty years old in 1640.Maryland Archives.

Taylor, Samuel (in Virginia 1641, &c.) son of John Taylor, of Knightsbridge, Westminster, bricklayer. V. M., XI, 150.

Tazewell, William (July 17, 1690-1752), Northampton county son of James and Anne (Kingswell) Tazewell, of Limington, Somerset. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 41, p. 368.

Temple, Joseph (1666- ), Essex and King and Queen counties son of William Temple, of Bishopstrow, Wilts, and grandson of John Temple, of Kingston Deverell.Burke's Landed Gentry (1886). Essex Records.

Temple, Rev. Peter, York parish, York county returned to England, and in 1686 was of "Sible Henigham in the County of Essex, Clerke." W. M., I, 5.

Terrell, Robert (in Virginia 1647, &c.), York county citizen and fishmonger, of London (d. in London 1677). Bequeathed lands in Hampshire. York Records. V. M., XVI, 190-192.

Terrell, Richmond (in Virginia 1658, &c.), New Kent county brother of Robert Terrell, preceding. V. M., XVI, 190-192.

Terrell, William (in Virginia 1670, &c.), New Kent county brother of Robert Terrell, preceding. V. M., XVI, 190-192.

Thomason, John, "of Virginia," died unmarried, adm. 1677 son of George Thomason, of London, the collector of the "Royal Pamphlets" in the British Museum. Berry's Sussex Genealogies, 234.

Thompson, Rev. John (d. 1772), Culpeper county born at Muckroe Abbey, near Belfast, Ireland. "Rootes of Rosewall," p. 33.

Thompson, Rev. Andrew (1673-1719), Elizabeth City county born at Stone Hive, Scotland. V. M., XI, 145.

Thompson, George (1603-1694), in Virginia 1624, &c. son of Ralph Thompson, gent., of Walton, Hertfordshire. W. G., 1023. V. M., I, 189-190.

Thompson, Maurice (d. 1676), in Virginia 1620, &c. brother of George Thompson, preceding. W. G., 1023. V. M., I, 188-189.

Thompson, Paul (1611- ), in Virginia 1624, &c. brother of George Thompson, preceding. V. M., I, 190.

Thompson, William (1614- ), in Virginia 1624, &c. brother of George Thompson, preceding.

Thompson, Richard (1613-1657), Northumberland county born in the city of Norwich. W. M., XVII, 58.

Thompson, Stevens (d. 1714), Williamsburg son of Sir William Thompson, of London, Sergeant-at-Law, (who was knighted October 31, 1689.) W. M., III, 154-155.

Thorpe, Mrs. Catherine (d. 1714), wife of Thomas Thorpe, of James City county, and daughter of Francis Seaton, of Polebrook, Northamptonshire. V. M., IV, 135.

Thorpe, George (d. 1622), son of Nicholas Thorpe, of Wanswell Court, Gloucestershire. W. M., IX, 209, 210.

Thornborough, Thornbury, Rowland (in Virginia before 1696, d. in Maryland 1696), Rappahannock county in will leaves estate, in case of death of sons s. p., to his next of kin, the Thornboroughs at Hampsfield, Lancashire. Lived first in Virginia, and removed to Maryland, where he died. Maryland Calendar of Wills, II, 111. W. M., III, 71.

Thoroughgood, Adam (1602-1641), Lower Norfolk county brother of Sir John Thoroughgood, and son of William Thoroughgood, of Grimston, Commissary of the Bishop of Norwich. V. M., II, 414-416.

Thoroughgood, Mrs. Sarah (d. 1657), wife of Adam Thoroughgood of Lower Norfolk county, and daughter of Robert Offley of London, and his wife Anne, daughter of Sir Edward Osborne, Lord Mayor of London. V. M., V, 435 XII, 201, 202.

Throckmorton, Albion (1674- ), Gloucester county son of John Throckmorton, of Ellington, Huntingdonshire. W. M., V, 54, 55 III, 46-49. V. M., VIII, 84, &c.

Throckmorton, John (1633-1678), Gloucester county son of Robert Throckmorton, of Ellington, Huntingdonshire. W. M., III, 46-49 V, 54, 55. V. M., VIII, 84, &c.

Throckmorton, Gabriel (1665-1737), Gloucester county son of John Throckmorton, of Ellington, Huntingdonshire. W. M., V, 54, 55 III, 46-49. W. M., VIII, 84) &c.

Thruston, Edward (1638- ), Warwick county son of John Thruston, Chamberlain of Bristol. W. M., IV, 25, 116, &c.

Thruston, Malachy (1637-1699), Princess Anne county son of John Thruston, Chamberlain of Bristol. W. M., IV, 25-27.

Thruston, Robert (d. 1678), "late resident at St. Pulchers [St. Sepulcher's] parish, London, armourer." V. M., XVII, 69.

Tirrey, John, gent. (1649-1700), Surry county born in London. V. M., VII, 211.

Tooker, Henry (1673-1737), Surry county son of Henry Tooker, Esq., of Winton [Winchester] in the county of Southampton. V. M., VII, 211.

Torkington, Joseph (in Virginia 1652,&c., d. 1652) brother of Samuel Torkington, citizen and grocer of London. Will of Joseph Torkington, P. C. C. Brent, 320.

Towlson, John (d. shortly before 1661), Northampton county uncle of William Towlson, husbandman, of the parish of Hearne, Kent. Northampton Records.

Townshend, Mrs. Frances (in Virginia 1640, &c.) wife of Richard Townshend, of York county, and sister of Robert Baldwin, gent., of London, and William Baldwin, of Glassthorn, Northamptonshire. W. M., XII, 249.

Townshend, Mrs. Mary, wife of Robert Townshend (d. 1675) of Stafford county, and daughter of Needham Langhorne, of Newton Brownshall, Northamptonshire. W. M., XII, 245, 299. V. M., XI, 146.

Traherne, Richard (in Virginia 1658, &c.) brother of William Traherne, of St. Clements Danes, Middlesex, chandler.

Trevethan, Sampson (in Virginia 1699, &c.), Lower Norfolk county in 1715 returned to England, and was of Penzance, Cornwall. Lower Norfolk Records.

Tucker, Daniel (in Virginia 1608, &c.) son of George Tucker, Esq., of Milton, Kent. At a much later date St. George Tucker and other descendants of George Tucker, of Milton, emigrated to Virginia from Bermuda and Barbadoes. Brown's Genesis, II, 1033. V. M., XVII, 394.

Tyler, Thomas, founder, (in Virginia 1722, &c.), Hanover county in 1727, by deed conveyed his plantation, &c., in Spotsylvania county, to his son, Charles Tyler, residing in Hopton-Wafer parish, Shropshire. Spotsylvania County Records.

Tyre, Mrs. Rebecca (in Virginia 1708, &c.) wife of James Tyre, of New Kent county, and daughter of John Sergeant, of Bermondsey, Surrey, weaver.

Underhill, John (d. 1673), York county born in the city of Worcester. W. M., II, 85. V. M., XVI, 94.

Unett, John (in Virginia 1622, &c.) son of John Unett, of St. Ann's, Blackfriars, London, whose nearest kindred lived at Ashellworth, Gloucestershire. V. M., XI, 316.

Upshur, Arthur (1623-1909 [sic]), Northampton county "born in ye County of Essex in ye Kingdom of England." W. M., III, 256.

Vansoldt, Abraham (in Virginia 1665) son of Elizabeth Vansoldt, widow, of Whitegate Alley in the parish of Buttolphs, Bishopsgate, London. V. M., XVI, 198.

Vaughan, Howell (d. in Virginia before 1686) formerly of Lloydarth, County Montgomery. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 59, p. 109.

Vaulx, James (d. 1682), York county formerly a merchant of London. W. M., III, 153.

Vaulx, Robert (1651-1685), Westmorelond county son of Robert and Elizabeth Vaulx, of London. W. M., IV, 42.

Vizer, Henry (in Virginia 1667, &c.) son of Robert Vizer, of Bristol, formerly of Dublin. V. M., XI, 367.

Vynn, Jeremy (d. 1687), Middlesex county of Norwich. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Wagener, Peter (in Virginia 1739, &c.), Fairfax county born at Sisted, Essex, August 5, 1717 son of Rev. Peter Wagener, Rector of Sisted. V. M., VIII, 60 XVI, 217.

Waggaman, Mrs. Margaret, wife of Jonathan Waggaman (who d. in Virginia about 1725) and daughter of William Elliott, Esq., of Wells, and of York Buildings, St. Martin's in the Fields, London. V. M., XIII, 95, 99. W. M., XVII, 300, 301.

Walker, John (d. 1745), Middlesex county son of John Walker, of Ashborne-in-the-Peak, Derbyshire. V. M., I, 470, 471. Robinson Pedigree.

Walker, Richard (d. 1726), Middlesex county brother of John Walker, of Ashborne-in-the-Peak, Derbyshire. V. M., I, 470.

Wallace, Rev. James (1677-1712>, Elizabeth City county native of Erroll, Perthshire, Scotland.

Wallace, Dr. Michael (1719-1767), King George county son of William Wallace, of Galrigs, merchant, and nephew of John Wallace, of Elderslee (or Ellerslie), Renfrewshire, Scotland. Hayden, 687-701.

Walton, Thomas (d. 1670), Isle of Wight county his next of kin, after his children, lived at Castor near Peterborough, Northamptonshire. W. M., VII, 237.

Warden, Thomas (in Virginia 1623), Accomac county "of Ely in Hampshire, husbandman." V. M., XIX, 132.

Warkman, Mark (in Virginia 1684, &c.), New Kent county son of Mark Gloucester als. Warkman, citizen and grocer, of London. V. M., XI, 308.

Warkman, Robert (in Virginia 1670, &c.) brother of Mark Gloucester als. Warkman, citizen and grocer, of London. V. M., XI, 308.

Warnett, Thomas (in Virginia 1629, &c.), James City county son of John Warnett, of Southwark, Surrey. W. G., 40, 41.

Washington, John (1631-1677), Westmoreland county son of Rev. Lawrence Washington, Rector of Purleigh, Essex. W. G., 352-404.

Washington, Lawrence (1635-1677), Rappahannock county brother of John Washington, preceding. W. G., 352-404. W. M., I, 184-188.

Waters, Edward, gent. (1584-1630), Elizabeth City county will dated at Great Hornmead, Hertfordshire names in it his brother, John Waters, of Middleham, Yorkshire. V. M., I, 92 II, 179.

Waters, John (d. 1694), Rappahannock county son of Mrs. Ann Waters, widow, of St. Sepulchre's, London (in 1697). V. M., XI, 305.

Watkin, George (d. 1673), Surry county. In his will (1673) he desires "to be buried in a decent manner in the Chancell of ye Church of Lawnes Creek [Va.] as my predecessors have been in ye p'rsh Churches where they dwelt" gives legacies to his uncle, Charles Barham [in Virginia], and to his cousin, Christopher Watkin, of "White Hart Court, in Long Lane, London." Surry Records.

Watts, William (in Virginia 1641, &c.) son of Cornelius Watts, of St. Cuthberts, in the city of Wells, vintner. V. M., XIII, 307.

Watts, William (in Virginia 1641, &c.) formerly fishmonger, of London. N. E. H. & G. Reg., Vol. 61, p. 199.

Weaver, Samuel (b. 1605, in Virginia 1623), Martin's Hundred, "of London." V. M., XIX, 133, 134.

Webb, George (in Virginia 1728, &c.), New Kent county son of Conrad Webb, of London, merchant. Webb Family Bible.

Webb, Giles (d. 1713), Henrico county brother of Thomas Webb, of the city of Gloucester, gent., (who was alive 1716). Henrico County Records.

Webb, Stephen (in Virginia 1642, &c.), James City and Surry counties born at Breshley, Worcestershire, and baptized there September 1, 1598 son of Stephen and Ann Webb. V. M., III, 57.

Wedderburn, David (1682- ), lived on York River son of Peter Wedderburn, of Donside (b. 1652), and grandson of Sir Alexander Wedderburn, of Blackness, Forfarshire, Scotland (1610-1676). Burke's Peerage and Baronetage Wedderburn of Balinden.

West, Francis (1586-1634) son of Thomas, 2nd Lord Delaware. V. M., II, 308 XI, 359.

West, John (1590-1659), York county brother of Francis West, preceding. V. M., I, 423. Foster's Oxford Matriculations. W. M., II, 152.

West, John (in Virginia 1623), James City "of Witley in Surrey, husbandman." V. M., XIX, 133, 134.

West, Nathaniel (1592- ), in Virginia 1617-1625, &c. brother of Francis West, preceding. Brown's Genesis and First Republic.

West, Thomas (d. in Virginia 1724), "of London, cooper." V. M., XIX, 133, 134.

West, William (d. before 1686) son of William West, yeoman, of Eaton, Berkshire (will 1686). W. G., 626.

Westcoate, Mrs. Elizabeth (in Virginia 1659, &c.) daughter of George Bartlett, citizen and pavior, of London. V. M., XI, 149.

Wethers, Erasmus (in Virginia 1677, &c., died in or before 1697), Middlesex county. There is mention that the will of Erasmus Snelling, citizen land ironmonger, of London, dated January 18, 1671, and proved P. C. C, gave legacies to said Erasmus Wethers of Virginia, Erasmus Maddocks, of East Greenwich in the county of Kent, woodmonger, and Margaret, wife of Richard Thomas, of Deptford. Middlesex Records.

Wharton, Richard (d. 1713), Williamsburg son of William Wharton, gent., of Wasteby near Wharton, Westmoreland. W. G., 1094.

Whitaker, Rev. Alexander (1585-1617), Henrico county son of William Whitaker, D. D., Master of Emanuel College, Cambridge. V. M., XI, 147, 148.

Whitaker, Mrs. Mary, wife of Captain Jabez Whitaker (in Virginia 1622, &c.), and daughter of Sir John Bourchier, of Lambeth, Surrey (d. 1626), uncle of the Regicide. V. M., I, 295. P. C. C. Act Book.

White, John (in Virginia 1670, &c.) nephew of John White, Vicar of Cherton als. Cheirton (Cherrington), Wiltshire. V, M., XI, 367-368.

White, John (in Virginia 1676, &c.) brother of William White, citizen and haberdasher, of London. V. M., XV, 64.

White, Rev. William (d. 1678), York and Lancaster counties brother of Rev. Jeremiah White, of England. Lancaster Records.

Whitehead, John (in Virginia 1701), indentured servant of Wixon, Lancashire. Essex Records.

Whitehead, Jonathan (d. 1686), Middlesex county of Southwark, London.

Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Whitlock, Mrs. ___________ (in Virginia 1677, &c.) daughter of John Hearne (dead in 1677) and niece of Sir Nathaniel Hearne, Knt., and Alderman, of London. V. M., XV, 184, 185.

Wilcocks or Wilcox, John (d. 1622), "late of Plymouth." V. M., II, 77,78. W. G., 3.

Williams, Daniel (d. 1721), formerly of Stepney, Middlesex. Will, Consistory Court of London.

Williams, George (d. 1686), Middlesex county of Kent. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Williams, John (in Virginia 1686, &c.), Middlesex county of Oxfordshire. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Williams, Mrs. Rachel (1718-1746), wife of Thomas Williams of Petersburg, and daughter of "Mr. John Freeman and Mary his wife of Wilsey in Gloster." W. M., V, 239.

Williams, Thomas (d. 1686), Middlesex county of Herefordshire. Ch. Ch., Middlesex, Parish Register.

Williams, Thomas (1702-1763), Petersburg born in St. James' parish, London. W. M., V, 239.

Williams, Rev. William (in Virginia about 1690), James City county son of Walter Williams, and grandson of Roger Williams of the Gore near Brecknock. W. M., X, 107.

Williamson, Roger (in Virginia 1646, &c.) brother of Richard Williamson, citizen and merchant tailor, of London. V. M., XV, 181.

Willis, Mrs. Anne (1695-1727), Gloucester county wife of Francis Willis, daughter of Edward Rich and niece of Elias Rich, Esq., of St. Paul, Covent Garden, London. W. G., 1086. W. M., III, 182, 188.

Willis, Francis (d. 1691), Gloucester county a native of the parish of St. Algate, City of Oxford. W. G, 239. W. M., V, 24-27.

Willison, James (1751-1787), Surry county born at Port Glasgow, Scotland son of John Willison and Margaret Dunbar his wife. Willison Bible Record.

Wilson, Richard (in Virginia 1639, &c.) son of Richard Wilson, citizen and draper, of London. W. G., 830.

Willoughby, Henry (1626-1685), Rappahannock county born at Stewkley, England son of George Willoughby, Esq., and grandson of Sir Ambrose Willoughby, Knt., of Malton, Gloucestershire, who was 2nd son of Charles, 2nd Lord Willoughby of Parham. Collins' Peerage. Rappahannock County Records.

Wingate, Roger, Esq. (d. about 1641) of Bedfordshire. W. M., I, 84. Keith's Ancestry of Benjamin Harrison. Visitation of Bedfordshire (Harlean Society).

Wingate, Mrs. Dorothy (in Virginia 1640, &c.) wife of Roger Wingate, and before of Lewis Burwell, and daughter of William Bedell, of Catworth, Huntingdonshire. Keith's Ancestry of Benjamin Harrison, 34, 35.

Witham, Cuthbert (in Virginia 1665, &c.) son of William Witham, of Yorkshire. W. M., II, 27.

Withe, Simon (in Virginia 1623), Elizabeth City "of London, bricklayer." V. M., XIX, 132.

Witton, Richard (d. 1783), Chesterfield county 1752, &c., afterwards in Mecklenburg had (in 1771) a sister, Lydia Deykin, living at Walsale, Staffordshire. Mecklenburg Records.

Woodhouse, Henry (1607-1655), Lower Norfolk county son of Henry Woodhouse, and grandson of Sir Henry Woodhouse, of Waxham, Norfolk, and his wife Ann, daughter of Sir Nicholas Bacon. W. M., I, 227-232 II, 262-264 V, 41-44. V. M., XIII, 203 XV, 363.

Woolard, William (in Virginia 1671, &c.), Isle of Wight county formerly of Harwich, Essex. W. M., VII, 228.

Woory, Joseph (in Virginia 1669, &c.), Isle of Wight county nephew of Sir John Yeamans, Bart., of Barbadoes (formerly of Bristol). W. M., VII, 237.

Wormeley, Christopher (in Virginia 1637, &c., d. before October, 1649), York county son of Christopher Wormeley, of Adwick le Street, Yorkshire. Miss Wormeley's Memoir of Admiral Wormeley. Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, 230, 231.

Wormeley, Ralph (d. 1651), York and Lancaster counties brother of Christopher Wormeley, preceding. Miss Wormeley's Memoir of Admiral Wormeley. Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, 230, 231.

Wyatt, Rev. Hawte (1594-1638), James City in Virginia 1621-25 son of Sir George Wyatt, of Boxley, Kent, and his wife Jane, daughter of Sir Thomas Finch, of Eastwell, Kent. V. M., II, 177-180 XVI, 204, 205. W. M., X, 59-60 XII, 35-45, 111-116.

Wyatt, Edward (in Virginia 1662, &c.), Middle Plantation and Gloucester county son of Rev. Hawte Wyatt, of Boxley, Kent. V. M., II, 179-180 XVI, 204, 205. W. M., X, 59-61 XII, 35-45, 111-116.

Wyatt, George (in Virginia 1500, &c.), Middle Plantation brother of Edward Wyatt, preceding. Same references.

Wynne, Robert (d. 1670), Charles City county bequeathed farm in "Whitestaple" parish, Kent, called Linbet Banckes two houses in Canterbury in St. Mildred's parish three houses and one oatmeal mill in Dover Lane, without St. Georges, Canterbury. V. M., XIV, 173, 174.

Yalden, Edward, in Isle of Wight county, 1669, &c. son of Anthony Yalden, of Winchester. Isle of Wight Records.

Yates, Charles (1728-1807), Fredericksburg son of Rev. Francis Yates, Rector of Grangrave, Yorkshire (d. 1798), and Ann Orfear his wife. W. Va. Hist. Mag., July, 1892, pp. 44-47.

Yeardley, Sir George (d. 1627), James City son of Ralph Yeardley, citizen and merchant tailor, of London. W. G., 189. V. M., I, 85, 86.

Yeo, George (d. 1743), Elizabeth City county bequeathed certain tenements in the Borough of Hatherley, Devon, called Wadlands and Finch Park. W. M., IV, 61.

Yeo, Hugh (d. about 1680), Northampton county brother of Justinian Yeo, of Harton, in the parish of Hartland, Devon. W. M., IX, 125.

Yeo, Justinian (in Virginia 1693, &c.), Accomac county formerly of Harton, in the parish of Hartlands, Devon brother of Hugh Yeo, preceding. Accomac Records.

Youell, Thomas (d. in or before 1657), Northumberland and Lancaster counties lived before in Maryland born in the parish of Wilbarsonne, Northamptonshire in 1640 was 22 years old. Maryland Archives. Hayden's Virginia Genealogies, 332-334.

Yuille, Jhon (1719-1746), Williamsburg son of John Yuille, of Darleith, Scotland. Va. Hist. Col., XI, 67.

Zouch, Sir John (d. 1639), formerly of Codnor, Derbyshire. V. M., XII, 87-88, 429, &c.

Zouch, John (in Virginia 1639, &c.) son of Sir John Zouch, of Codnor, Derbyshire, and of Virginia. V. M., XII, 87-88, 429, &c.


Abrahall, Robert (p. 1). A deed from him to William Bassett bears on a seal the arms of Abrahall of Herefordshire.

Bassett, William (p. 4) had been an officer in the English garrison at Dunkirk (probably in Alsop's regiment) until it was evacuated in 1662.

Byrd, William (1652-1704), Henrico and Charles City counties son of John Byrd, goldsmith, of London. Pedigrees prepared in London in 1702 and 1763 trace John Byrd's ancestry to the Byrds of Brexton, Cheshire.

Pedigree in "Writings of Col. Byrd" (Bassett ed.) and in "Beau Monde" (Richmond, April 7, 1894).

Calthorpe, Christopher (p. 12), was a son of Christopher Calthorpe, of Blakney, and brother of James Calthorpe, Esq., of East Barsham.

Early History of Native Americans in Virginia

All of the Commonwealth of Virginia used to be Virginia Indian territory the area was estimated to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for more than 12,000 years. Their population has been estimated to have been about 50,000 at the time of European colonization. The various peoples belonged to three major language families: roughly, Algonquian along the coast, Iroquoian in the southern Tidewater region, and Siouan above the fall line. About 30 Algonquian tribes were allied in the powerful Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom along the coast, which was estimated to include 15,000 people at the time of English colonization.

The native people had no written language and recorded their events through storytelling and symbolic drawings


The Clovis culture is noted by the lance-shaped fluted point. Clovis points are found across the continent, and an especially large number are found in Virginia. Other stone tools found with the Clovis point include scrapers, gravers, perforators, wedges, and knives.

Evidence in Virginia suggests that these tools were used to spear game, cut up meat, scrape and cut hides, and split and carve bone of deer, bison, and rabbit. Also caribou, elk, moose, and possibly mastodon may have been hunted.

Glaciers made for long, hard winters and short, cool summers. In the Appalachian region, the mountain slopes were bare and tundra-like. People in the Shenandoah Valley and northern Virginia lived among grasslands, open forests of conifers, such as pine, fir, spruce, and hemlock, and occasional islands of deciduous trees. Slightly warmer weather south of present-day Richmond encouraged the growth of more deciduous trees such as birch, beech, and oak.

The first people lived in groups which anthropologists today call bands, and camped along streams that flowed through the tundra-like grasslands and the open spruce, pine, and fir forests that covered Virginia at that time. A band was like an extended family. Due to the harsh climate, each band moved seasonally within a set territory to hunt and forage.

Early Archaic

Archaic, meaning old, signals a series of new adaptations by the early people that occurred between 8,000 and 1,200 BC As the cold, moist climate of the Pleistocene Age changed to a warmer, drier one, the warming winds melted the glaciers to the north and warmed the ocean water. The sea level rose, spreading water across the Coastal Plain of Virginia and creating the Chesapeake Bay

Thus, the Early Archaic population grew, nurtured by a more inviting environment. Families lived in larger bands and remained mobile, but within a more limited fertile area.

Middle Archaic

By the Middle Archaic period, the Indians of Virginia had adjusted well to the Eastern woodland. They became masters of the deciduous forest of oak, hickory, and chestnut. Their knowledge of how best to use the physical setting altered with the changing environment and shifting seasons of the year, and gradually became more sophisticated.

The people of the Eastern forest started to produce in large quantities chipped stone axes around 4,000 BC The axes were made from tough resilient stone, such as basalt and quartzite. With large axes, the Middle Archaic people could more easily cut wood to build houses and make fires. The resulting forest clearings altered the environment in a radical way. Clearings encouraged the growth of plants and trees that were beneficial to the people, such as berry bushes and fruit and nut trees. Deer, bear, turkey, and other animals came to the clearing to browse on the tender leaves of low-lying shrubs and to eat berries and nuts. The people had made changes to the environment, that brought them direct benefits.

Late Archaic

Archaeologists believe that between 3,000 and 1,000 years ago, people first began to settle into villages. It was also about this time that people first began to clear sections of land by burning so that edible plants would continue to grow in those areas each year. We would consider this the earliest examples of farming. For example, we know these people ate sunflowers, ragweed, sumpweed, squash, gourds, and greens. They hunted deer, black bear, turkey, squirrel, rabbits, beaver, otter, muskrat and water birds. Particularly in the Coastal Plain Region of Virginia, the people fished for shad, herring, rockfish, and sturgeon. Oysters, clams, crabs and turtles were plentiful.

Late Woodland

Archaeologists have found evidence that these people used clay to make pottery and then traded that pottery with other people in nearby areas. Around 800 years ago, native people began to use bow and arrow to hunt. We also know that they took care in burying their dead in large mounds, and left them with items of importance, probably because they believed these people would need the items in the afterworld.

Villages became more complex house building more substantial. In typical villages, various sizes of house were placed in rows around a plaza with perhaps a council house or temple elevated on a nearby mound. A palisade may have surrounded the entire village.

Indians AD

When Europeans first arrived in this region in the early 17th century, they found a flourishing population of people who belonged to one of three main language groups. Most of the coastal plain was inhabited by an Algonquian empire, today collectively known as Powhatan. The southwestern coastal plain was occupied by Iroquoians, the Nottoway, and Meherrin. The Piedmont was home to two Siouan confederacies, the Monacan and the Mannahoac.

Once the English arrived and began to settle in the area, the native people found themselves in competition for land for hunting and farming. They also were exposed to European diseases for the first time, and many died of diseases like smallpox, to which they had no immunity. While there was occasional fighting over the land, the increasing number of English settlers and African slaves, and the dwindling population of natives effectively pushed native groups into smaller and smaller settlements where they could barely farm enough land to stay alive.

Modern Indians AD

In the 1800s, the prevailing white culture in Virginia wanted to push the Indians off their homelands. Pressure was brought to remove each of the four remaining reservations and end the people's legal status as tribes. This policy meant dividing, with the Indians' consent, all of a reservation among each of its members and removing all state services to the tribe. The Gingaskin Reservation on the Eastern Shore was legally subdivided in 1813. Unable to withstand legal pressure and being very poor, the people sold their land for profit. By 1850, all of the original Gingaskin Reservation was in white hands. The last parcel of the Nottoway Reservation was divided in 1878, although many families held onto their land into the 20th century. The Pamunkey and Mattaponi, the last two reservations, withstood attempts at termination. Though the people were poor, they maintained their tribal structure and treaties with the Commonwealth. Today, their reservations are two of the oldest in the nation, symbols of a people who refused to give up.

Federal Marshals Called In

The violence toward the Freedom Riders was not quelled—rather, the police abandoned the Greyhound bus just before it arrived at the Montgomery, Alabama, terminal, where a white mob attacked the riders with baseball bats and clubs as they disembarked. Attorney General Kennedy sent 600 federal marshals to the city to stop the violence.

The following night, civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. led a service at the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, which was attended by more than one thousand supporters of the Freedom Riders. A riot ensued outside the church, and King called Robert Kennedy to ask for protection.

Kennedy summoned the federal marshals, who used teargas to disperse the white mob. Patterson declared martial law in the city and dispatched the National Guard to restore order.

World War II's 'Most Dangerous’ Allied Spy Was a Woman With a Wooden Leg

During World War II, Nazi officials were constantly hunting down resistance fighters and the allied spies who aided them. But there was one foreign operative the Third Reich held special contempt for𠅊 woman responsible for more jailbreaks, sabotage missions and leaks of Nazi troop movements than any spy in France. Her name was Virginia Hall, but the Nazis knew her only as “the limping lady.”

“I would give anything to get my hands on that limping Canadian b—-,” Klaus Barbie, the infamous Gestapo chief, reportedly grumbled to his henchmen. Despite his cruelest efforts, he never would.

Virginia Hall wasn’t Canadian, but she did walk with a pronounced limp, the result of a freak hunting accident that required the amputation of her left leg below the knee. In its place was an ungainly seven-pound wooden prosthetic that she lovingly nicknamed Cuthbert.

Hall was raised in Baltimore, Maryland by a wealthy and worldly family that put no limits on their daughter’s potential. Athletic, sharp and funny, she was voted “the most original in our class” in her high school yearbook. She began her college studies at Barnard and Radcliffe, but finished them in Paris and Vienna, becoming fluent in French, German and Italian, with a little Russian on the side.

After graduation, Hall applied to the U.S. Foreign Service, eager to see the world and serve her country, but was shocked to get a rejection letter reading, in effect, “No women, not going to happen,” says Judith Pearson, author of the suspenseful Hall biography The Wolves at the Door: The True Story of America’s Greatest Female Spy.

1944 drawing of Virginia Hall. 

Not ready to give up, Hall decided to enter foreign service “through the back door,” says Pearson, by landing a clerk job at the U.S. Embassy in Warsaw, and then at the U.S. Consulate in Smyrna, Turkey. It was during a bird-hunting excursion with American friends in Turkey in 1933 that Hall stumbled climbing over a wire fence and accidentally discharged her shotgun, hopelessly mangling her left foot.

Recuperating back home in Maryland, Hall applied to the Foreign Service again, only to be rejected not because she was a woman, but because she was an amputee.

Hall quit the State Department and went back to Paris as a civilian in 1940 on the eve of the German invasion. She drove ambulances for the French army and fled to England when France capitulated to the Nazis. At a cocktail party in London, Hall was “railing against Hitler,” says Pearson, when a stranger handed her a business card and said, “If you’re really interested in stopping Hitler, come and see me.”

The woman was none other than Vera Atkins, a British spymaster believed to be Ian Fleming’s inspiration for Miss Moneypenny in the James Bond series. Atkins, who recruited agents for Winston Churchill’s newly created Special Operations Executive (SOE), was impressed with Hall’s firsthand knowledge of French countryside, her multi-language fluency and her unflappable moxie.

In 1941, Hall became the SOE’s first female resident agent in France, complete with a fake name and forged papers as an American reporter with the New York Post. She quickly proved exceptionally skilled at not only radioing back information on German troop movements and military posts, but also at recruiting a network of loyal resistance spies in central France.

A painting of Virginia Hall who was part of espionage operations against Nazi Germany. 

The Central Intelligence Agency

The mission of the SOE was to “set Europe ablaze” with guerilla sabotage and subversion tactics against the Nazi forces.

What 1940s spy craft lacked in technological sophistication, it made up in creativity. The BBC would insert coded messages into its nightly news radio broadcasts. Hall would file “news” stories with her editor in New York embedded with coded missives for her SOE bosses in London.

“In Lyon, Hall would put a potted geranium in her window when there was a pickup to be made,” says Pearson, who spoke to some of Hall’s aging compatriots in France. 𠇊nd the pickup would be a message behind a loose brick in a particular wall, or it might be go to a certain cafe, and if there’s a message, the bartender would give you a glass with something stuck to the bottom of it.”

Hall became so notorious to Nazi leaders that the Gestapo dubbed her “the most dangerous of all Allied spies.” When Barbie and the Gestapo distributed wanted posters for the “limping lady,” Hall fled the country the only way she could, a grueling 50-mile trek over the Pyrenees mountains southward into Spain. Her Spanish guides first refused to take a woman, let alone an amputee, but she would not be deterred. The November weather was bitter cold and her prosthetic was agonizing.

At a safe house in the mountains, Hall radioed her superiors in London to report that she was OK, but that Cuthbert was giving her trouble. The deadly serious reply from SOE headquarters, which mistook Cuthbert for an informant, read, “If Cuthbert is giving you difficulty, have him eliminated.”

But Hall wasn’t done fighting Nazis. Since the British OES refused to send her back into France as a marked woman, Hall signed up with the U.S. Office of Strategic Service (OSS), a precursor to the CIA.

General William Donovan presenting Virginia Hall with the Distinguished Service Cross, September 1945.

In 1944, months before the D-Day invasion at Normandy, Hall rode a British torpedo ship to France, and disguised as a 60-year-old peasant woman, criss-crossed the French countryside organizing sabotage missions against the German army. In one OSS report, Hall’s team was credited with derailing freight trains, blowing up four bridges, killing 150 Nazis and capturing 500 more.

After the war, Hall was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, one of the highest U.S. military honors for bravery in combat. She was the only woman to receive the award during World War II. Back home, she continued to work for the CIA until her mandatory retirement at age 60.

Hall passed away in 1982, and because she eschewed attention and praise, even some of her closest family members didn’t know the full extent of her daring escapades in Vichy France. Pearson says Hall was a spy’s spy to the end.

“I held a memo in my hand from General William Donovan [head of the OSS during World War II] from the 1950s, in which he told Virginia, ‘Okay, you can talk now.’ But she still didn’t,” says Pearson. “That was how Virginia lived.”

Dave Roos is a freelance writer based in the United States and Mexico. A longtime contributor to HowStuffWorks, Dave has also been published in The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times and Newsweek.

Vampire Diaries Merchandise & Gift Shops

In addition to the many filming sites you can visit in person, there are also a few gift shops in town that sell some awesome Vampire Diaries merchandise.

One of the biggest gift shops with the widest range of Vampire Diaries merchandise is run by the Vampire Stalkers tour group and is located near the Town Square.

There&rsquos also a great shop located off of the alley near the Mystic Grill that I actually bought a Mystic Grill t-shirt from while we were there.

Another option is of course to purchase your own Vampire Diaries merch before your visit so you can rock it around town during your visit.

Parallel U.S. Routes

Interstate 64 and U.S. 40/61 overlap from the western terminus at Wentzville to Ladue, where U.S. 61 turns south along Lindbergh Boulevard. I-64 and U.S. 40 remain cosigned to St. Louis and the Poplar Street Bridge across the Mississippi River. I-64 and U.S. 40 part ways at the East St. Louis Interchange, with U.S. 40 taking I-55 and I-70. East of St. Louis, Interstate 64 replaced former U.S. 460, which used to follow portions of IL 15, IL 142 and IL 14 and Indiana State Road 66 and SR 62 en route to Louisville, Kentucky. The route also overlaps with U.S. 50 from Caseyville to O’Fallon, Missouri.

Once at Louisville, Interstate 64 parallels U.S. 60 more or less east to Virginia. Exceptions to this include the tolled West Virginia Turnpike where I-64 combines with Interstate 77, and between Staunton and Richmond, where it parallels U.S. 250.

Major Projects

In Louisville, Kentucky, major improvements and upgrades were completed at the “Spaghetti Junction” (Kennedy Interchange) linking I-64 with I-65 and I-71 as part of the overall Ohio River Bridge Project. This project primarily focused on the construction of the East End Bridge for I-265 and doubling capacity of the I-65 Downtown Crossing by constructing the Abraham Lincoln Bridge parallel for northbound traffic. Reconstructed of the Kennedy Interchange and surrounding roadways included a number of improvements: 6

  • Increased capacity for the ramp system
  • A new interchange design at Mellwood Avenue and Interstate 64
  • A new partial interchange at Interstate 71 and Frankfort Avenue/Ohio Street
  • Realignment of Interstate 64 between I-65 and I-71 to a new alignment south of the existing alignment
  • Extension of Witherspoon Street one mile to Frankfort Avenue/Ohio Street

Costs were estimated for the Ohio River Bridge Project in December 2006. The $3.9 billion cost for two new Ohio River Bridges and the reconstruction of the Downtown “Spaghetti Junction” interchange surpassed the initial estimates by over 60%. Components of the major construction initiative were as follows in 2006: 8

  • Interstate 265 Connector/East End Bridge — Cost: $1.29 billion Estimated Completion: 2013.
  • Interstate 65 Downtown Louisville Bridge Replacement — Cost: $868.4 million Estimated Completion: 2019. The Abraham Lincoln Bridge opened to traffic on December 6, 2015.
  • I-64, I-65 and I-71: Reconstruct the Kennedy Interchange — Cost: $1.74 billion Estimated Completion: 2024.

Funding was a major concern, and lack of money resulted in a delayed time table. Work finally started on the Kennedy Interchange project on July 15, 2013. Construction ran through the end of 2016. 9

Route Information

East End – Chesapeake, VA

West End – Wentzville, MO

Branch Routes – 5

Total Mileage – 963.52

Missouri – 40.50*

Cities – Wentzville, Chesterfield, St. Louis


Illinois – 128.12#

Cities – East St. Louis, Mt. Vernon


Indiana – 123.33

Cities – Evansville, New Albany


Kentucky – 185.20

Cities – Louisville, Frankfort, Lexington, Winchester, Mt. Sterling, Moreland


West Virginia – 188.75+

Cities – Huntington, Charleston, Beckley, White Sulphur Springs

Virginia – 297.62**

Cities – Covington, Clifton Forge, Lexington, Staunton, Waynesboro, Charlottesville, Richmond, Williamsburg, Newport News, Hampton, Norfolk


Source: December 31, 2018 Interstate Route Log and Finders List
* – 0.4 miles on I-55, # – 2.7 miles on I-55, 4.14 miles on I-57, + – 63.88 miles on I-77, ** – 30.40 miles on I-81

I-64 Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT)

Country music has a deep history in Virginia. What’s left of it in Hampton Roads?

As Ken Burns’ “Country Music” documentary unfolds on PBS stations around the country, Virginia is getting its share of attention.

The earliest documented fiddle festival took place in Virginia in 1736, 40 years before the Declaration of Independence was signed.

It’s considered the birthplace of country, as the home of the Carter Family and because the 1927 recordings that launched the careers of the Carters and Jimmie Rodgers took place in Bristol, the town that straddles the Tennessee-Virginia border.

George D. Hay, founder of country music’s beloved Grand Ole Opry, is buried in Norfolk’s Forrest Lawn Cemetery, and the United States’ first radio station to play all country music, WCMS, started right here in Norfolk in 1954.

But what is the state of country music in Hampton Roads today? Where do folks go when they want to take their boots for a spin around the dance floor? What radio stations are playing three chords and the truth, or the modern twist on that definition of the genre? Is the region a hotbed of country music talent?

The country scene around the 757 has a few things going for it. The fans are diverse, the watering holes are welcoming and there is local talent turning out tunes. But it’s no Nashville.

Every summer, without fail, country music’s biggest and brightest – think Luke Bryan, Rascal Flatts, Brad Paisley and Jason Aldean – roll through town to perform at the Veterans United Home Loans Amphitheater in Virginia Beach and residents rush to buy tickets, filling the seats and spilling out into the lawn. By comparison, the absolute A-list in other genres tend to blow past Hampton Road when they tour.

Yet Tidewater is home to just two major country stations – 97-3 The Eagle (WGH-FM) and US106, America’s Country (WUSH-FM) – which seems too few to reflect the obvious fanbase. For the most part, the stations seem to stick to the same rotation of chart-topping songs, skipping over local talent.

Just ask Celeste Kellogg. If you’ve never heard of her, it’s not because she hasn’t worked hard to get her music in front of you.

Kellogg is a Smithfield native and still lives in the area. She gigs all over the region and makes the trek to Nashville often.

She’s got a charted single out right now, “There’s a Beach Somewhere,” but unless you’ve seen her around town, you probably haven’t heard it on either of our major country radio stations.

“I love both major stations here, but I don’t think they play indie artists at all. I’m on over 100 stations across the United States, but the ones at the Beach, I’m not sure if they have much of a say in playing artists that aren’t on major labels,” Kellogg said over the phone from her Smithfield home.

It’s frustrating, and fans ask her about it often.

“I’m still working on it though, and I won’t give up,” she said mustering a laugh as she recovered from a summer cold.

You will hear her songs on one station, though you have to jump on a computer or download a smartphone app to enjoy it.

Jimmy Ray Dunn was a DJ on Eagle 97.3 for nearly three decades, excluding a brief departure in 1994 when the station was “looking for a new sound.” He returned the following year and stayed until 2015.

Now, Dunn hosts a digital radio webcast, Jimmy Raydio, every day, via the website or smartphone app. His morning show runs from 6 to 8 a.m. and is a mix of listener requests and whatever he feels like listening to.

He plays all country, from Tammy Wynette to Florida Georgia Line. He plays songs of local artists, too.

“The listeners own it. That was the whole purpose from the start, so people could have an alternative to what’s on the FM dial,” Dunn said. “I don’t have to ask anybody if I can play a song or a record.”

Kellogg isn’t the only recent talent to look to Nashville for success, either.

Alana Springsteen’s family uprooted their lives in Virginia Beach to move the 18-year-old to Tennessee, where she’s steadily releasing material and gaining a following by playing her own music.

For musicians here in Tidewater, playing original material at shows isn’t as easy.

Jim Cahoon, bass player for local band Runnin’ Shine, explained: “Places want danceable country covers, more often than not. Squeezing in our songs was off-limits. How do you survive like that?”

Cody Christian’s band, Every King and Commoner, recently started testing the gig waters and has run into the same issue. Christian said the biggest offenders are breweries.

“Those kinds of places are looking for much longer sets, and they want you to fill the time with cover songs,” he said. “And we’re just not a cover band.”

Curtis Cowles, lead vocalist for Buckshot, said his band has leaned into the local demand for cover songs. They’re in high demand, too, and have played at least two or three shows a week for the past few years on stages at festivals, breweries and bars around the region.

“We’ve found that if you play good covers right, play songs that people know as they’re meant to be played, fans really enjoy that. And then you can slip in your own songs and if they like it, they remember them.”

They like to stick to country’s roots, he said. If you’re a fan of Alan Jackson, Sturgill Simpson or Dwight Yoakam, Buckshot is your kind of band.

Some venues don’t make the demand, though, like The Vanguard Brewpub and Distillery in Newport News and the newly relaunched Granby Theater in downtown Norfolk.

Both Runnin’ Shine and Christian’s other band, Old Myrtle, opened up for country legend Billy Ray Cyrus earlier when he played there this year.

More space in the spotlight needs to be given to original material. That’s something Kellogg, Runnin’ Shine and Christian all agree on. But how?

Bringing back singer-songwriter showcases would be a good start.

“It’d be a great way to get people invested and interested in country music,” said Janice Chandler of Runnin Shine. “What The NorVa used to do was called 757 Country Fest every year, and it was a lot of fun.”

A handful of local bands would play, and tickets were only around $10, she said. The fests were perfect for spotlighting local talent, but they ceased a few years ago.

Similar events exist, and they’re held by the Virginia Country Music Association, said its former president, Tom “Tee” Meroney.

The VCMA, founded in 1971, holds jamborees on both sides of the water where Tidewater musicians get together, learn how to line dance and take turns on stage, often jumping in with other artists to improvise on the spot.

On the first Sunday of the month, they gather at the Moose Lodge in Newport News. The next jam, held on the third Sunday of the month, is at the Portsmouth Moose lodge.

For country music month, the jamborees are intensified.

“We have what is called a super jam. We bring in some of the best musicians and best singers in the area to create a house band of sorts,” Meroney said. Details for next month’s super jam were being finalized, he said.

And there are frequent country shows at Frank’s Truckstop in Chesapeake and the Indian River Road Hardee’s in Virginia Beach.

These get-togethers aren’t for fans of what Meroney calls new country. VCMA members love the classic country sound, where fiddles, banjos and lap steels are in the mix.

Rarely will you hear a song written in this century.

“There are two groups of followers, in my opinion. You’ve got the younger crowd that listens to these top 40 radio stations playing this new country music. Then, you’ve got the older people who still like Johnny Cash, Loretta Lynn, Merle Haggard, Alan Jackson – the true country music, as I know it,” he said.

If you visit any of the region’s remaining country bars, you’ll see that there’s something to his theory.

There are at least three bars that give specific space to country music, one of them with locations on both sides of the water. And depending on whether you like old or new country, you’ll feel more at home at a specific spot.

Eagles Nest Rockin Country Bar is tucked into the corner of a Chesapeake strip mall. If you don’t know it’s there already, you’d never be able to tell just by driving by. The Nest embraces old and new country alike, which makes it a popular hangout with a diverse crowd and many dedicated regulars.

Inside, you’ll find two large rooms – one for country music and another for a mix of top 40 songs. Outside, there is a newly-created outdoor area for live music.

Up-and-coming and obviously modern touring country artists Filmore, whose breakthrough single was “Slower,” and Hardy, who dropped “Hixtape Vol. 1” last week, are the biggest acts on the bar’s event calendar for the next month.

In the section where country music is king, a modest, wood dance floor takes up the center floor, surrounded by high top tables, two separate bars and a stage. Neon lights shine all over and music pumps out of large monitors, making it nearly impossible to talk without shouting. On a recent nightm, TVs spaced around the room ran games of every sport in season and President Donald Trump’s live 9/11 commemoration.

The cowboy boots are aplenty at The Nest, and the variety is impressive – painted, bedazzled, paisley, floral, some shiny and new, others beaten and rustic. Only a few go the extra mile with a cowboy hat or an oversized belt buckle.

Free line dance lessons are taught by DJ Kenny – who is dripping head to toe in cowboy swagger – on Wednesdays starting around 7 p.m.

Even though Virginia Beach resident Maleka Buck clearly knows what she’s doing on the dance floor, she comes every week for Kenny’s lessons, and has been for about three years.

Toward the end of the night, when a more difficult dance is taught, she catches on quickly after one or two practice rounds and starts adding flourishes of her own. Wednesday is for brushing up and fine-tuning her moves. When she comes back each Friday, that’s when the real fun begins.

“This is a hobby that has turned into a lifestyle,” Buck says with a grin as she watches the other dancers slide across the floor. “We’re all here because we love what we’re doing.”

She hangs out at two other local spots that feature country music, PBR and The Banque, but said Eagles Nest is her home because she found her chosen family there. It beats any bar she’s visited in Nashville, too.

PBR, which stands for Professional Bull Riders, is the newcomer to the scene. As its name suggests, the Hampton and Norfolk locations feature mechanical bulls and a host of riders who have learned to tame the beast.

The bars are more contemporary than their counterparts. The most you’ll see in the way of country attire is cowboy boots. Long gone are the days of pressed Southern chic dress shirts and pants.

Staff at PBR have a little fun with cowboy couture, though. Some sport a version of leather chaps and cowboy hats while others stick to ripped jeans and flannel.

The décor of the bars matches the mood, with an updated yet rustic take on country. At the Newport News location, “A COWBOY BAR” is spelled out in giant illuminated letters.

Events range from line dancing nights and bull riding competitions to live bands. On nights where DJs rule the soundwaves, you can expect to hear all the latest country radio hits and a sprinkling of other genres.

Cowles said Buckshot has played at the Norfolk location several times, and when they stick to songs you can dance to, the floor stays packed and the drinks flow faster.

The area’s longest-running country bar, The Banque, sits in a Norfolk strip mall, not far from Little Creek Amphibious Base. As such, a fair bit of its clientele are young and enlisted, though a good amount of older line dancers mingled with the younger-leaning crowd on a recent ladies night.

Dennis Doughty opened the nightclub in 1973, “before country was cool.” In its early days, the bar was a disco club.

That changed in the early ′80s, and the only thing that remains from the era is the original disco ball that used to shine above the dance floor. It has since been moved over the stage area, and a brand new, sparkling saddle-shaped disco ball has taken its place over the line dancers. There are only four others like it ever made, and one of them belongs to country-pop sensation Kacey Musgraves.

The Banque feels like somewhere you could potentially meet the love of your life among décor that transports you back in time. Walls are lined with photos and murals of country stars of yore, many who played in the club before they made it big and others who were known to stop by when they were in town.

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