Which country traces its roots back to the oldest civilization?

Which country traces its roots back to the oldest civilization?

Which country is recognized or documented as having the first prominent civilization? After reading so many articles, I couldn't determine which country should be acknowledged as having the oldest civilization. According to Puranas of India, it seems to be the oldest country with a prominent civilization. However, while searching Google, I found that Egyptians existed at the same time as the earliest Indian civilization. Can anybody clarify this?


The Sumerians are widely credited with being the first genuine civilisation on Earth, beginning gradually around the 5th millennium BC and reaching clear 'civilisation' status by the early 4th millennium BC. Towns and large agricultural communities existed before this time, but are generally not considered to have constituted a civilisation. The Sumerians, who were situated in modern-day lower Iraq and Kuwait, are widely believed to have invented the city-state and organised government, law, writing, systematic agriculture, the wheel (probably), and irrigation, among various other early innovations and marks of civilisation.

Although the dates of the beginnings of these civilisations are in general not terribly well-defined, the order of the appearance of "civilisations" is often considered to be the following.

  • Ancient Sumerian - the very earliest (first city-states in world in 4th millennium BC, cuneiform script, probably first 'proper' writing system, c. 3,000 BC)

  • Ancient Egyptian - widely considered independent in origin (gradual development of civilisation throughout 4th millennium BC, unification / start of First Dynasty c. 3150 BC, appearance of hieroglyphs c. 3,000 BC)

  • Ancient Indian (Indus Valley Civilisation) - widely considered independent in origin (c. 3,300 BC, Indus 'Script' from around 3,300 BC but may well have just been pictograms for initial phase, since not yet deciphered, syncretism with Indo-Aryans from early 2nd millennium BC)

  • Ancient Chinese - widely considered independent in origin (c. 1,900 BC with Ertilou period and development of state, beginning of Bronze Age, Oracle Bone Script recorded from c. 1,250 BC but definitely older, yet still pictographic at this point)

  • Ancient Greek (Minoan / Mycenaean) - partially inheriting from Mesopotamian and Egyptian developments, older than the above if you count the Minoans of Crete (c. 3,000 or early 3rd millennium BC, undeciphered Linear A script from c. 2,500 BC, Mycenaean Greece and deciphered Linear B script from c. 1,600 BC)

  • Phoenician / Canaanite (Lebanon area) - partially inheriting from Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilisation (first recorded in 15th C BC by Egyptians, but city-states likely several centuries older)

  • Ancient Italian (Etruscan / Roman) - partially inheriting from the Greeks (Etruscans and city-states from c. 900 BC, Rome founded in c. 753 BC, Republic in 509 BC, dominant Mediterranean power by late 3rd C BC and defeat of Carthage)

  • Ancient Iranian (Medean / Persian) - partially inheriting from Elamite and Mesopotamian civilisations (Medean Empire from c. 678 BC but with scarce archaeological remains, extremely influential and historically important Achaemenid Empire from 550 BC)

Sources for these dates can be found here and here. Admittedly, I miss out a few civilisations like the Elamites, Akkadians, Hittites, and other Anatolian and Middle Eastern ones (and thus perhaps I do them injustice) - that said, these would usually be considered to have left behind a far less marked cultural or historical impact on their respective regions, or indeed even a lesser archaeological or documental history in some cases. The Elamites are perhaps most deserving of a place in the above list, and they would date from c. 3,000 BC, putting them in '4th place'. I believe it's debatable how much they were influenced by Sumer.

Note also that I am restricting this answer to Old World civilisations, since although the Norte Chico civilisation of South America can be considered very early, it does not bear some of the hallmarks of what we typically consider - rightly or wrongly - a 'genuine' civilisation (e.g., a mature writing system, the wheel).


After contenders like Sumerians, Egyptians, there is another forbidden world which was ruined because of earthquake or may be foreign invasion (some estimate this). Here i am talking about Indus Valley Civilisation who trace back its root since 3300 - 1300 B.C and was the most advanced among all the ancient settlements at that time.

- Handicrafts - In Mettalurgy - City Planning - Great sewage and drainage systems - Baked bricked walls

The civilisation was alien to us but came to known after britishers (colonists) discovered the ruins and clusters of city buried under the earth.

The civilisation was based on the land which is modern day punjab of pakistan. The Harrappa and Mohenjadaro were the major cities of those times.

For More information, follow this link : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilization

Sources: www.wikipedia.com/ indus valley civilisation www.google.com / search engine

{Apologizes for bigger than size images}


If you use the term civilization with the connotations of culture than the first pieces of art were found in South Africa from more than 60,000 years ago. In an even broader sense apes are now known to possess culture, by teaching technological tricks to their siblings and newcomers in their group.


Ancient Sumerians were the first people to invent an alphabet and they did it long before the Egyptians. They kicked off the "Agricultural" revolution, which started the "Urban" revolution and the domestication of animals.

They gave the world the first "Religion" that became a template for all civilizations that followed in human history. Consider the fact that their "war between the Gods" theme was incorporated by the big three monotheistic monopolies of our planet. Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Then consider the fact that a citizen of Mesopotamia, named Abraham, ( and his sons ) started it all.


Over the Blue Ridge to Cherokee Territory

The Asheville of today features stunning Art Deco architecture, the sounds of drums in Asheville&aposs Pritchard Park on a Friday night and the smells of international flavors as you pass by myriad of local restaurants. But stop and ponder this: the area traces its roots back to The Cherokee,ਊ sacred and ancient civilization dating back 11,000 years. Their home is one of the oldest places on Earth, the Appalachian Mountains, formed between 400 and 600 million years ago. 

The Cherokee

Known as the Ani-Yvwiya, or the "Real People," their descendants continue to thrive on the Qualla Boundary (Cherokee reservation) as the Eastern Band of Cherokee just 51 miles from downtown Asheville in Cherokee, NC.

The Cherokee story is a rich tale of a proud tribe once occupying an area encompassing approximately 140,000 square miles. Their ancestors prospered as farmers and hunters, and had a deep reverence for nature. Today, about 9,000 members of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians remain caretakers of their land that now makes up 57,000 acres at the gateway of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, America’s most visited park. 

Entering Cherokee – The Family Friendly Territory

Without setting a time machine back a millennium ago, a trip to Cherokee, NC is the closest way to experience this sovereign nation as it was then and as it is today. 

Oconaluftee Indian Village is an authentic 1760’s replica of Cherokee life. Interact with villagers as they hull canoes, craft pottery and masks, weave baskets and practice traditional medicine ceremonies. Visit on your own or take a guided tour (May – Beginning of November).

To comprehend the complex history of the Cherokee Nation, make it a priority to visit the Museum of the Cherokee.  High tech exhibits explore the 11,000 years of the evolution of the Cherokee.  

Across the street is Qualla Arts and Crafts, the finest examples of traditional Cherokee crafts including baskets, wood carvings, dolls, beaded items, masks and pottery. Meet the master artisans, from the elders to the third generation, and take a piece of handmade history home with you.

As dusk approaches, make your way to the Mountainside Theatre for the second oldest outdoor drama in the United States, Unto These Hills. Talented native actors are adorned in spectacular traditional dress and perform ceremonial dance and song, while reenacting the most profound periods of their history. The drama is set amidst ornate sets complete with fog, fire and thundering surround-sound effects. And it all takes place under the dazzling summer stars of the Smoky Mountains (May 1 – Mid-October).

Things to Know Before You Go

Plan on a full day, pack a lunch/drinks and fill the gas tank. On a clear day take the time and travel the Blue Ridge Parkway from Asheville to Cherokee – approximately a three hour-drive of breathtaking beauty. Some great stops are: Looking Glass Rock Overlook Milepost (MP) 417, Devils Courthouse (MP 422.4 – strenuous ½ mile hike to 360 views) and Waterrock Knob (MP 451.2 four-state views, easy trails). On the return drive, cut that drive time to one hour by taking U.S. 441 in Cherokee to US 19 and East on I-40 to Asheville.

If you਌rave outdoor activity, the Cherokee area is a playground for fishing, hiking, tubing all at the front door of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

Local’s favorites: Granny’s Kitchen, and Sassy Sunflowers Bakery & Café.


History

Saudi Arabia traces its roots back to the earliest civilizations of the Arabian Peninsula. Over centuries, the peninsula has played an important role in history as an ancient trade center and as the birthplace of Islam. Since King Abdulaziz Al Saud established the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, its transformation has been astonishing. In a few short decades, Saudi Arabia has turned itself from a desert nation to a modern, sophisticated state and a major player on the international stage.

An Ancient Trade Centre

Located between the two great centers of civilization, the Nile River Valley and Mesopotamia, the Arabian Peninsula was the crossroads of the ancient world. Trade was crucial to the area’s development caravan routes became trade arteries that made life possible in the sparsely populated peninsula. The people of the peninsula developed a complex network of trade routes to transport agricultural goods highly sought after in Mesopotamia, the Nile Valley and the Mediterranean Basin. These items included almonds from Taif, dates from the many oases, and aromatics such as frankincense and myrrh from the Tihama plain. Spices were also important trade items. They were shipped across the Arabian Sea from India and then transported by caravans. The huge caravans traveled from what is now Oman and Yemen, along the great trade routes running through Saudi Arabia’s Asir Province and then through Makkah and Madinah, eventually arriving at the urban centers of the north and west.

The Islamic Empire

Less than 100 years after the birth of Islam, the Islamic Empire extended from Spain to parts of India and China. Also, a large number of pilgrims began regularly visiting the peninsula, with some settling in the two holy cities of Makkah and Madinah. These pilgrims facilitated the exchange of ideas and cultures between the people of the peninsula and other civilizations of the Arab and Muslim worlds. The emergence of Arabic as the language of international learning was another major factor in the cultural development of the Arabian Peninsula. The Muslim world became a center for learning and scientific advances during what is known as the “Golden Age.” Muslim scholars made major contributions in many fields, including Medicine, Biology, Philosophy, Astronomy, Arts and Literature.


What Happened to the World’s Oldest Church?

The sad thing about using the Dura-Europos Church as an example for churches today is that this church is not in existence.

Its building, once evidence of a vibrant and growing congregation, lies in ruins and was only discovered by persistent archeologists and historians who were willing to dig through multiple layers of dirt to find this ancient structure.

One would think that individual local churches that were established and grounded on biblical principles, like the five characteristics of the Dura-Europos Church as described above, would endure and flourish until Christ’s return. But this local church no longer exists.

History records that the city of Dura-Europos, located then above the right bank of the Euphrates River was captured by the Sasanian Empire after a siege in AD 256–257, and its population was deported. After that, the city was abandoned and was ultimately covered by sand and mud.

There are multiple reasons why an individual local church might lose its vitality and relevance. In this case, the culture completely changed due to a violent overthrow by a powerful enemy neighbor. The city, as well as this church building within it, disappeared from sight.


AFRICA ’S GREAT CIVILIZATIONS

Above: Henry Louis Gates, Jr. explores the Dantokpa Market, one of the largest in the city of Cotonou, located in the west African nation of Benin.

Told From an African Perspective, Series Explores How Human Civilization Traces its Roots Back to the African Continent

This series is available to stream on demand with KPBS Passport.

AFRICA’S GREAT CIVILIZATIONS is a three-part, six-hour documentary series hosted, executive produced and written by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.. Professor Gates travels the length and breadth of Africa to chronicle the continent’s history from a firmly African perspective.

His journey takes him from the city of Great Zimbabwe to the pyramids of the Kingdom of Kush in Sudan, from the spectacular rock-hewn churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia to the continent’s oldest university in Fez, from the Blombos Caves in South Africa to Ancient Mali, the empire of King Mansa Musa, still thought to be the wealthiest person ever to have lived.

In this series, Gates chronicles a sweeping 200,000-year journey of discovery, showing the complexity, grandeur and diversity of many millennia of undiscussed and unknown details about Africa’s compelling and dramatic history.

Gates presents — for the first time for a popular audience — a new vision not only of Africa’s pivotal place in world history, but also the world’s relation to Africa.

Africa's Great Civilizations | Official Trailer

In his six-hour series, AFRICA’S GREAT CIVILIZATIONS, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. explores the history of Africa, from the birth of humankind to the dawn of the 20th century. This is a breathtaking and personal journey through two hundred thousand years of history, from the origins, on the African continent, of art, writing and civilization itself across the millennia.

Africa’s contributions to the human community’s development of art and language, writing and religion, agriculture and government, the arts and sciences are commonly misunderstood, or even ignored.

This landmark series presents a new and comprehensive narrative about Africa and the history of the extraordinary diverse peoples of its continent, from the Mediterranean Sea to the Cape of Good Hope, from the Red Sea and down the Nile River, and from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic.

The series sizzles with exciting interviews with leading historians, creative writers, art historians, paleoanthropologists, geneticists and museum curators including the Nigerian Nobel Prize-winning author Wole Soyinka Kenyan paleoanthropologist Dr. Richard Leakey historians John Thornton and Linda Heywood of Boston University Christopher Ehret of UCLA Ghanaian scholar Emmanuel Akyeampong of Harvard University and art historian Cécile Fromont, along with many more.

City of Ile Ife | Africa's Great Civilizations

The origin story of Ile Ife lies at the heart of the Yoruba culture. After death, the Onis were worshiped as Gods, and the artworks called Ife Heads were likely used as icons of power.

FILMMAKER QUOTE:

“Africa is the ancestral home to the human community and to many of the pivotal breakthroughs in the history of civilization, yet the continent continues to be stereotyped as an isolated and underdeveloped region in the mind of outsiders, devoid of any profound historical achievements,” says Gates.

“This series will dispel these myths and other inaccuracies about Africa through a detailed and riveting examination of significant historical events, such as the rise of its powerful kingdoms, the growth of extensive trade networks with the Middle East, Europe and China, seminal technological and artistic discoveries, and its peoples’ resilience in the face of harrowing past traumas. We made this series to end this ignorance about the African past, to reveal how Africans not only shaped the history of their continent, but also how profoundly and how extensively Africa has shaped the contours of our modern world.”

Interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

In his six-hour series, AFRICA’S GREAT CIVILIZATIONS, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. takes a new look at the history of Africa, from the birth of humankind to the dawn of the 20th century.

EPISODE GUIDE:

Episode: “Origins” repeats Wednesday, Feb. 3 at 11 p.m. and Sunday, Feb. 28 at 9:30 a.m. on KPBS TV - Journey with Professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr. to Kenya, Egypt and beyond as he discovers the origins of man, the formation of early human societies and the creation of significant cultural and scientific achievements on the African continent.

Afro Combs | Africa's Great Civilizations

Did you know that afro combs were used in ancient African civilizations? Burial pits in the Nile Valley have been the source of rare and unique artifacts, dating back more than 6,000 years.

Episode: “The Cross And The Crescent” repeats after episode 1 on Wednesday, Feb. 3 at Midnight and Wednesday, Feb.10 at 11 p.m. and Sunday, Feb. 28 at 10:30 a.m. on KPBS TV - Gates charts the ancient rise of Christianity and Islam, whose economic and cultural influence stretched from Egypt to Ethiopia. Learn of African religious figures like King Lalibela, an Ethiopian saint, and Menelik, bringer of the Ark of the Covenant.

City of Meroe | Africa's Great Civilizations

In the middle of the fourth century, Axumite armies forged their way inland along the Nile Valley, invading new territories and heading for the Great City of Meroe, the third and last capital of the Ancient Kingdom of Kush.

Episode: "The Atlantic Age" repeats Wednesday, Feb. 17 at 11 p.m. and Sunday, Feb. 28 at 11:45 a.m. on KPBS TV - Gates explores the impact of the Atlantic trading world, giving rise to powerful new kingdoms, but also transatlantic slave trade. Learn of the revolutionary movements of the 18th and early 19th centuries, including the advent of the Sokoto Caliphate.

The City of M'banza-Kongo | Africa's Great Civilizations

The Kingdom of Kongo was one of the largest and most powerful in the southern half Africa. At the heart of the capital in M'banza-Kongo stand the ruins of a building constructed in the middle of the 16th century. It's one of the most important architectural remains in the history of Sub-Saharan African Christianity.

Episode: "Commerce and the Clash of Civilizations" repeats after episode 5 on Wednesday, Feb. 17 at Midnight and Sunday, Feb. 28 at 11:45 a.m. on KPBS TV - Gates explores the dynamism of 19th century Africa, the “Scramble” by European powers for its riches, and the defiant and successful stand of uncolonized Ethiopia.

The Swahili Coast | Africa's Great Civilizations

For over a thousand years, African merchants gathered on the Swahili coast, once known as Azania, to exchange their wares with other merchants from Europe, from Persia, Arabia, even as far east as China.

Episode: "Cities" repeats Wednesday, Feb. 24 at 11 p.m. and Sunday, Feb. 28 at 1 p.m. on KPBS TV - Gates explores the power of Africa’s greatest ancient cities, including Kilwa, Great Zimbabwe and Benin City, whose wealth, art and industrious successes attracted new European interest and interaction along the continent’s east and west coasts.

The City of Great Zimbabwe | Africa's Great Civilizations

The Great Enclosure of Great Zimbabwe is the largest pre-colonial structure in the whole of Sub-Saharan Africa. It was a statement of majesty, power, wealth, and architectural genius.

Episode: “Empires Of Gold” TBA - Henry Louis Gates, Jr. uncovers the complex trade networks and advanced educational institutions that transformed early north and west Africa from deserted lands into the continent’s wealthiest kingdoms and learning epicenters.

City of Timbuktu | Africa's Great Civilizations

The heart of Timbuktu’s intellectual life was its libraries. Between the 14th and the 17th centuries, they acquired hundreds of thousands of books, mostly written by African authors working in the city.

WATCH ON YOUR SCHEDULE:

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JOIN THE CONVERSATION:

Henry Louis Gates, Jr. is on Facebook, Instagram, and you can follow @HenryLouisGates on Twitter. #AfricasCivilizationsPBS

The series is produced by Inkwell Films, McGee Media, Kunhardt Films and WETA Washington, D.C., the flagship public broadcaster in the nation’s capital, in association with Nutopia. Written by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Produced and directed by Virginia Quinn and Mark Bates.

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New Log Still Distillery Traces Its Roots Back To Bourbon’s Beginnings

A brand new distillery will soon come on line, but Log Still will have a pedigree that goes back about as far as bourbon itself. And at the helm of that venture is JW Dant, a name you might recognize as a brand by the same name is still sold today, by Heaven Hill.

The Log Still story really began in 1836, when JW Dant made a still from a hollowed-out poplar log, firing up his family’s legacy in the Kentucky bourbon business.

And while multiple generations of Dants followed in JW’s footsteps, the family had gotten out of the bourbon business altogether … until now, as JW’s great-great-great-grandson Wally Dant has come to revive the family legacy.

Wally, previously a healthcare entrepreneur, has shifted gears to dive full force into the bourbon business to honor his forefather’s legacy. And as he fires up the new distillery, along comes a multi-million-dollar investment, the project bringing 70 or more jobs to bourbon country.

“We have a very big family … actually, seven generations of big families … so, more cousins than we can count,” Wally said in an interview with us. “And for as long as I can remember, whenever we’d gather, our family would talk about how much we all wished we were still in the bourbon business.”

Wally had a business interest in spirits for a while and actually owned a wholesale distribution company in Tennessee. “One day, one of my clients who happened to be a bourbon distiller from Kentucky, said, ‘Wally, you’ve got an incredible, genuine story to tell. You ought to think about doing this.’ That was in 2017, and that’s when the seed was planted. I created the Log Still Distillery brand a year later and reached out to my talented cousins Lynne and Charles and asked them to join me in this venture.”

The Dants are looking at the American culture of bourbon, at this time in history, and that plays into the development of “site attractions and amenities” for the new Log Still Distillery.

“Bourbon is the only native American spirit, and it is very gratifying to see its popularity on the rise, especially knowing that our family played an important role in bringing bourbon to the world,” Wally said. “So we look back on our history with pride, but our real focus is looking forward and creating a product and a destination … what we call Dant Crossing … where people want to bring their families and then bring them back again. We want to create great bourbon and great family memories for our guests.”

Wally and his fellow Dants offered their hats off to the Kentucky Distillers Association, the Bardstown Chamber of Commerce and all the other organizations that helped make their part of Kentucky a true tourist destination.

The new Log Still distillery being built (image via Log Still)

“I believe the bourbon trail and its nearby distilleries have helped capture the interest of a broad audience and certainly taken the demand for bourbon to another level,” Charles Dant said. “Our hope is to create a place for visitors who want an authentic experience. You can always create a brand, but seven generations of family history in bourbon-making is something only a very few of us can claim.”

Speaking of their family history, Lynne Dant said there are recipes and other instructions held over from the original JW Dant that factor into Log Still’s business.

Her grandfather was Will Dant, who was the president and head distiller for Dant & Head Distillery, which operated on the very same property in the 1930s where Log Still now operates.

“Grandaddy kept detailed journals of his own distilling plans, and in those he referred to the original mash bills created by Joseph Washington Dant, who got our family started in the bourbon business using that hollowed-out log for a still,” Lynne said.

Her grandfather also had several of his own mashbills, some have been tried and others haven’t … yet. “I have his old journals, thanks to my dad, who held onto them. The Dants were known for a premium, ‘high rye’ bourbon, and that is our starting point. And just like the Dants have been doing for years, we plan to experiment and play around with various recipes. We will be rooted in our history but still be exploring and having fun as we move forward.”

And that’s good news for bourbon lovers. Log Still will have two primary brands, Monk’s Road and Rattle & Snap.

Monk’s Road is the signature bourbon brand that pays homage to the recipes of Dant’s forefathers. The flavor profile includes vanilla, nutmeg, rye and signature spice that Lynne said has been synonymous with the Dant family for nearly 200 years.

“This product is aging in barrels in Kentucky as we speak, and we can’t wait to share it with the world. In the meantime, we’re excited to say that Monk’s Road dry and barrel-finished gins will be available in the very near future,” Lynne added.

They are rolling out the first bourbon in their Monk’s Road Lost Distillery Series soon. With this series, they are paying homage to pre-Prohibition era distilleries with a limited offering of hand-selected spirits.

First up is a Cold Spring Distillery Limited Release. Cold Spring was founded right across the street from the distillery today by J.B. Dant, a son of Joseph Washington Dant, in the 1870s.

Lynne explained that Rattle & Snap is the brand where “we get a little more adventurous with our flavor profiles. We’ve got a line of delicious Tennessee Whiskeys rolling out this year as well.”

Log Still Distillery products will be available to guests as soon as they open their mini-still and tasting room at the Gethsemane, Kentucky, distillery in early March.


History of stand-up comedy

Stand-up comedy got its start in the 1840s from the three-act, variety show format of minstrel shows (via blackface performances of the Jim Crow character) Frederick Douglass criticized these shows for profiting from and perpetuating racism. [1] [2] Minstrelsy monologists performed second-act, stump-speech monologues from within minstrel shows until 1896, although traces of these racist performances continued to be used until the mid-1900s. [3] [4] Stand-up comedy also has roots in various traditions of popular entertainment of the late 19th century, including vaudeville (via minstrel shows, dime museums, concert saloons, freak shows, variety shows, Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus), American burlesque (via Lydia Thompson's feminization of the minstrel show, concert saloons, English music halls, and circus clown antics), and humorist monologues like those delivered by Mark Twain in his first (1866) touring show, Our Fellow Savages of the Sandwich Islands. [5] [6] [7] [8] Unadulterated, vaudeville monologuist run-times were 10-15 minutes. [9] [10]

Pleasure gardens had outdoor "rooms" with themes. [11] While pleasure gardens hosted shows of minstrelsy and burlesque, the era of American vaudeville can be traced back to 1836, at a pleasure garden called Niblo's Garden, but the term vaudeville wasn't in regular verbal use until the 1840s and didn't commonly appear in writing until the 1890s. [12] [13] With the turn of the twentieth century and spread of urban and industrial living, the structure, pacing and timing, and material of American humor began to change. [14] [15] Comedians of this era often depended on fast-paced joke delivery, slapstick, outrageous or lewd innuendo, and donned an ethnic persona—African, Scottish, German, Jewish—and built a routine based on popular stereotypes. [16] During the stand-up eras of minstrel, vaudeville, and burlesque, jokes were generally considered to be in the public domain and humorous material was widely shared, appropriated, and stolen. [17] Industrialized American audiences sought entertainment as a way to escape and confront city living. A precursor to stand-up, the era of American burlesque started in the 1860s and ran uncensored until 1937, when the term burlesque could no longer legally be used in New York burlesque comics used stereotypes and sexually suggestive dialogic humor to appeal to heterosexual men. [8] [18] [19] The burlesque routine Who's on First? was made famous by Abbott and Costello.

The founders of modern American stand-up comedy include Moms Mabley, Jack Benny, Bob Hope, George Burns, Fred Allen, Milton Berle and Frank Fay, all of whom came from vaudeville or the Chitlin' Circuit. [20] [21] They spoke directly to the audience as themselves, in front of the curtain, known as performing "in one". Frank Fay gained acclaim as a "master of ceremonies" at New York's Palace Theater. Vaudevillian Charlie Case (also spelled Charley Case) is often credited with the first form of stand-up comedy, performing humorous monologues without props or costumes. This had not been done before during a vaudeville show.

The 1940s-50s elevated the careers of comedians like Milton Berle and Sid Caesar through radio and television. [22] From the 1930s-50s, the nightclub circuit was owned and operated by the American Mafia. [23] [24] Nightclubs and resorts became the breeding ground for a new type of comedian: a stand-up, specifically Lenny Bruce. [25] [26] Acts such as Alan King, Danny Thomas, Martin and Lewis, Don Rickles, Joan Rivers and Jack E. Leonard flourished in these venues.

In the 1950s and into the 1960s, "new wave" [27] stand-ups such as Mort Sahl and Lord Buckley began developing their acts in small folk clubs like San Francisco's hungry i (owned by impresario Enrico Banducci and origin of the ubiquitous "brick wall" behind comedians) [28] or New York's Bitter End. [29] [30] [31] These comedians added an element of social satire and expanded both the language and boundaries of stand-up, venturing into politics, race relations, and sexual humor. Lenny Bruce became known as 'the' obscene comic when he used language that usually led to his arrest. [32] After Lenny Bruce, arrests for obscene language on stage nearly disappeared until George Carlin was arrested on 21 July 1972 at Milwaukee's Summerfest after performing the routine "Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television" [33] Carlin's act was ruled indecent but not obscene, and the Supreme Court granted the FCC permission to censor in a 5-4 ruling from FCC v. Pacifica Foundation.

Other notable comics from this era include Woody Allen, Shelley Berman, Phyllis Diller, and Bob Newhart. Some Black American comedians such as George Kirby, Bill Cosby, Flip Wilson, Godfrey Cambridge, and Dick Gregory began exploring the criticism of "history and myth" in the 1950s-60s, with Redd Foxx testing the boundaries of "uncensored racial humor". [34]

In the 1970s, several entertainers became major stars based on stand-up comedy performances. Richard Pryor and George Carlin followed Lenny Bruce's acerbic style to become icons. Stand-up expanded from clubs, resorts, and coffee houses into major concerts in sports arenas and amphitheaters. Steve Martin and Andy Kaufman were the most popular practitioners of anti-comedy from the 1970s into the 1980s. [35] The older style of stand-up comedy (no social satire) was kept alive by Rodney Dangerfield and Buddy Hackett, who enjoyed revived careers late in life. Don Rickles, whose legendary style of relentless merciless attacks on both fellow performers and audience members alike kept him a fixture on TV and in Vegas from the 1960s all the way to the 2000s, when he appeared in the wildly popular Pixar Toy Story films as Mr Potato Head, whom Rickles gave his grouchy onstage mannerisms. Television programs such as Saturday Night Live and The Tonight Show helped publicize the careers of other stand-up comedians, including Janeane Garofalo, Bill Maher and Jay Leno.

In the 1980s, Eddie Murphy shaped African American comedy when he created the Black Pack: similar to the Rat Pack, it was a group of stand-up comedians, its members included Paul Mooney, who wrote for Richard Pryor and later starred on Chappelle's Show. [36] [37] [38] [39]

From the 1970s to the '90s, different styles of comedy began to emerge, from the madcap stylings of Robin Williams, to the odd observations of Jerry Seinfeld and Ellen DeGeneres, the ironic musings of Steven Wright, to the mimicry of Whoopi Goldberg, and Eddie Murphy. These comedians would serve to influence the next generation of comedians.

After the height of the 80s stand-up comedy boom, there was a 90s comedy bust. [40]

The Aristocrats is a 2005 film based on the original vaudeville joke The Aristocrats, where comedians tell their version of the dirty joke. [41]

Official recognition of present-day stand-up comedians comes from the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor, the New York Friars Club roasts, and The Andy Kaufman Award. [42]

Early twentieth-century front-cloth comics started in music halls, paving the way for stand-up comedy in Great Britain. [43] [44] [45] Notable front-cloth comics who rose through the variety theatre circuit were Morecambe and Wise, Arthur Askey, Ken Dodd and Max Miller. [46] [43] Until 1968, the heavy censorship regime of the Lord Chamberlain's Office required all comedians to submit their acts for censorship. The act would be returned with unacceptable sections underlined in blue pencil (possibly giving rise to the term "blue" for a comedian whose act is considered bawdy or smutty). The comedian was then obliged not to deviate from the act in its edited form. [47]

The rise of the post-war comedians coincided with the rise of television and radio, and the traditional music hall circuit suffered greatly as a result. [ citation needed ] By the 1970s, music hall entertainment was virtually dead. Alternative circuits had evolved, such as working men's clubs. [47] Some of the more successful comedians on the working men's club circuit—including Bernard Manning, Bobby Thompson, Frank Carson and Stan Boardman—eventually made their way to television via such shows as The Wheeltappers and Shunters Social Club. The "alternative" comedy scene also began to evolve. Some of the earliest successes came from folk clubs, where performers such as Billy Connolly, Mike Harding and Jasper Carrott started as relatively straight musical acts whose between-song banter developed into complete comedy routines. The 1960s had also seen the satire boom, including the creation of the club, the Establishment, which, amongst other things, gave British audiences their first taste of extreme American stand-up comedy from Lenny Bruce. [48] Victoria Wood launched her stand-up career in the early 1980s, which included observational conversation mixed with comedy songs. Wood was to become one of the country's most successful comedians, in 2001 selling out the Royal Albert Hall for 15 nights in a row. [ citation needed ]

In 1979, the first American-style stand-up comedy club, the Comedy Store was opened in London by Peter Rosengard, where many alternative comedy stars of the 1980s, such as Dawn French and Jennifer Saunders, Alexei Sayle, Craig Ferguson, Rik Mayall and Ade Edmondson began their careers. [49] The stand-up comedy circuit rapidly expanded from London across the UK. The present British stand-up comedy circuit arose from the 'alternative' comedy revolution of the 1980s, with political and observational humor being the prominent styles to flourish. In 1983, young drama teacher Maria Kempinska created Jongleurs Comedy Clubs before it closed in 2017. Stand-up comedy is believed to have been performed originally as a one-man show. Lately, this type of show started to involve a group of young comedians, especially in Europe. [ citation needed ]

In terms of live comedy in Mexico, the predecessors of this comic style are:

    are a comic duo who were predecessors of a style consisting of parodies and double senses with creativity (1957-2008) Originally from Juan Aldama, Zacatecas. He dropped out of architecture at the Universidad del Valle de México to take theater classes at the "Dimitrio Sarrás Actors Studio" for three years.
  • Mara Escalante, is an actress, comedian and Mexican singer. She is known for the television series María de Todos los Ángeles, in which she has two characters, including the protagonist. She began her career in the mid-1990s. (1944-), whose routines are characterized by a high content of sexual references, with a touch of misogyny, relayed as a personal anecdote. (1961-) was one of the first to transport the genre to Mexico from his nocturnal program, using the comic monologue. (Evelio Arias Ramos, 1966-2008).

The new generation of comedians decided to use their own lives as the theme of their comedy, imitating the American style:

    , son of Mexican comedian Héctor Suárez, is currently the host of the Latin American version of the comedy program Stand Up Comedy Central Presents, broadcast by Comedy Central from 2011 until 2014. since 2013 leads the program called STANDparados broadcast by Comedy District before Classic TV.
  • Kikis, (1980) comedian since late 2011, openly lesbian, has participated in Comedy Central Latin America as well as with Adal Ramones in STANDparados Comedy District.
  • Luiki Wiki (1985-) began making comedy in January 2013 in Mexico City and later moved to Monterrey NL to start the first Open Mic in Monterrey (an event in which comedians can participate to try out new material with a real audience) together with other comedians of the genre. Later they created the first collective of comedy in Monterrey called For Laughter Standup Comedy. Luiki Wiki has participated in programs such as Es de Noche and I already arrived with René Franco and as with Adal Ramones in the 3rd season of the STANDparados program aired by Comedy District. (1981-) Comedian, musician, radio announcer and founder of "La Diablo Squad". He is mainly known for his comedy shows, has performed throughout the Mexican Republic and Latin America, even starting his own "World Tour", arriving to have confirmed performances in Europe and the United States, including trips to Japan and Australia. Currently known as the largest representative of stand-up comedy in this country.
  • Hugo "El Cojo Felíz" (1988-), is a comedian, radio announcer, part of the devil Squad, has the radio program "La Hora Felíz" with the "Uncle Rober" and is considered the best pen in Mexico.
  • Roberto Andrade Cerón the "Uncle Rober" (1979-) is a comedian, writer, radio announcer and has "La Cojo Feliz" the radio program "La Hora Felíz".
  • Daniel Sosa
  • Alex Fernandez
  • Sofía Niño de Rivera
  • Mauricio Nieto

The one-man-show genre, which is similar, but allows other approaches (enacting characters, songs and scenes) was introduced in Brazil by José Vasconcellos in the 60's. Taking a step closer to the North American format, Chico Anysio and Jô Soares maintained the format - specially in their live nation-wide talks shows, and generally, in the opening monologues - bringing to Brazil a genre more similar to what is currently known as Stand-up. [50]

Stand-up began to be interesting news in 2005 in São Paulo, when the first club was created, called Clube de Comédia Stand-Up: composed of Marcelo Mansfield, Rafinha Bastos, Oscar Filho, Marcela Leal and Márcio Ribeiro. In São Paulo the comedy club would present in Beverly Hills, the traditional comedy venue in Moema. Shortly afterwards it migrated to Mr. Blues and Bleeker Street, in Vila Madalena. In Rio de Janeiro, Comédia em Pé, (Comedy Standing Up): composed of Cláudio Torres Gonzaga, Fábio Porchat, Fernando Caruso and Paulo Carvalho, had its debue at the venue Rio Design Leblon. These were the first stand-up performances in the country.

In 2006, the comic Jô Soares watched Clube de Comédia in São Paulo and invited the comic Diogo Portugal for an interview in his talk show. That was a definitive moment to call attention towards the genre. He mentioned many different shows that he was a part of and attracted the public attention and media coverage to the bars that held these presentations. In Curitiba, with this momentum, many other stand-up nights began opening up. In São Paulo, Danilo Gentili, that had just become a part of Clube da Comédia, invited Mário Ribeiro and gathered other young comics that were frequent spectators at the club, to create Comédia Ao Vivo (Live Comedy): composed of Dani Calabresa, Luiz França, Fábio Rabin. [51] [52]

With the show CQC - Custe o Que Custar, on TV Bandeirantes, a nation-wide TV outlet, in 2008, the genre took gained its permanent spot on the national stage. With big names like Danilo Gentili, Rafinha Bastos and Oscar Filho, the curiosity grew exponentially. [53]

Following CQC's example many channels and TV shows on Brazil's national television invested in Stand-up comedy. After this many other groups gained recognition in the clubs and live performances around the two biggest cities of Brazil.

Although the antecedents of this genre can be traced back to the monologues of Miguel Gila in the 1950s, the rise of live comedy in Spain took a long time in comparison with the American continent. The first generalized relationship with this comic genre occurred in 1999 with the creation of the Paramount Comedy channel, which included the New Comics program as one of its flagship programs, where monologuists such as Ángel Martín, José Juan Vaquero, David Broncano, and Joaquín Reyes stood out.

Also, in 1999 began the journey of the program The club of comedy, an open adaptation of the popular comic format. In its first stage (1999-2005), it underwent several chain changes and released comedians like Luis Piedrahita, Alexis Valdes or Goyo Jiménez. In its new stage, starting in 2011 in La Sexta and presented by Eva Hache, it tries to start in the genre of comic monologue media characters from different artistic fields such as: Imanol Arias, José Luis Gil, Isabel Ordaz and Santiago Segura.

Special mention deserves the Buenafuente program, started in 2005. The presenter, Andreu Buenafuente, made an initial monologue of about 9 to 11 minutes where he links current issues with everyday humorous situations. This became the most famous part of the program and made him one of the most recognized comedians in Spain, for his connection with the public and his ability to improvise.

On the other hand, the comedian Ignatius Farray became one of the most representative icons of this genre today.

Modern stand-up comedy in India is a young art form, however Chakyar koothu was prominent in Trivandrum and southern Kerala during the 16th and 17th centuries. It had all the attributes of modern stand-up comedy and is widely considered to be the oldest known staged comedy act anywhere in the world. [ citation needed ]

Even though the history of live comedy performances in India traces its early roots back to 1980s, for a long time stand-up comedians were only given supporting/filler acts in various performances (dance or music). [ citation needed ]

In 1986, India's Johnny Lever performed in a charity show called "Hope 86", in front of the whole Hindi film industry as a filler and was loved by audience. His talent was recognized, and he would later be described as "the iconic comedian of his generation". [54] [55]

It was not until 2005, when the TV show The Great Indian Laughter Challenge garnered huge popularity and stand-up comedy in itself started getting recognised. Thus, a lot more comedians became popular and started performing various live and TV shows. The demand for comedy content continues to increase. Some popular comedians around 2005-2008 include Raju Srivastav, Kapil Sharma and Sunil Pal. Most of them performed their acts in Hindi.

Raju Srivastav first appeared on the comedy talent show The Great Indian Laughter Challenge. He finished as second runner-up and then took part in the spin-off, The Great Indian Laughter Challenge — Champions, in which he won the title of "The King of Comedy". [56] Srivastava was a participant on season 3 of Bigg Boss. He has participated in the comedy show Comedy Ka Maha Muqabla. [57]

Kapil Sharma is ranked no. 3 at the most admired Indian personality list by The Economic Times in 2015. [58] Currently he is hosting the most popular Indian comedy show "The Kapil Sharma Show" after "Comedy Nights with Kapil". [59] Sharma had been working in the comedy show Hasde Hasande Raho on MH One, until he got his first break in The Great Indian Laughter Challenge, one of the nine reality television shows he has won. He became the winner of the show in 2007 for which he won 10 lakhs as prize money. [59]

Sharma participated in Sony Entertainment Television's Comedy Circus. [60] He became the winner of all six seasons of "Comedy Circus" he participated in. [61] He has hosted dance reality show Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa Season 6 [62] and also hosted comedy show Chhote Miyan. [63] [64] Sharma also participated in the show Ustaadon Ka Ustaad.

Around 2008-2009, two other popular comedians Papa CJ and Vir Das returned to India and started making their marks on Indian comedy scene. Both of them were exposed to UK and US comedy routines and they performed mostly in English. At the same time, a few more youngsters got inspired and started taking plunge into stand-up comedy.

Since 2011, the stand-up comedy has been getting substantial appreciation. [ citation needed ] The Comedy Store from London opened an outlet in Mumbai's Palladium Mall where people would regularly enjoy comedians from UK. The Comedy Story also supported local comedians and helped them grow. This outlet eventually become Canvas Laugh Club in Mumbai.

Around 2011, people started organizing different comedy open mic events in Mumbai, Delhi (and Gurgaon), Bangalore. All of this happened in association with growth of a counterculture in Indian cities which catered to the appetite of younger generations for live events for comedy, poetry, storytelling, and music. Various stand-up events were covered by popular news channels such NDTV / Aajtak etc. and were appreciated by millions of viewers.

As a result of these developments, plus the increasing penetration of YouTube (along with Internet/World Wide Web), Indian stand-up comedy started reaching further masses. While the established comedians such as Vir Das, Papa CJ were independently growing through various corporate / international performances, other comedians such as Vipul Goyal, Biswa Kalyan Rath, Kenny Sebastian, Kanan Gill, Kunal Kamra grew popular through YouTube videos.

The industry, still in its early stages, now sees a lot more influx of aspiring comedians as it transforms the ecosystem around it.


Ten fun facts about Asia

Fact 1
Asia has the second largest nominal GDP of all continents, after Europe, but the largest when measured in PPP.

Fact 2
Asia has the most populous continent, with approximately 4 billion people (or 60% of the world’s current human population)

Fact 3
The largest economies in Asia are China, Japan, India, South Korea and Indonesia.

Fact 4
Most Asian countries have more than one language that is natively spoken.

Fact 5
It is the world’s largest continent and is traditionally defined as part of the landmass of Eurasia—with the western portion of Eurasia occupied by Europe. Asia occupies the eastern part of the Eurasian landmass and the adjacent islands, and is separated from Europe by the Ural Mountains.

Fact 6
Eastern philosophy and religion also play a major role in Asian culture, with Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam all represented.

Fact 7
Colonization in Asia traces its roots back to the late 15th century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices.

Fact 8
It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and comprises 30% of its land area.

Fact 9
Asia was originally a concept of Greek civilization.

Fact 10
Bengali polymath Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, and became Asia's first Nobel laureate.


List of Greek Inventions

The Olympic Games

Olympic games are more than just a mere discovery, they are a global phenomenon. The Olympic games host participants of more than 165 countries around the world. The first record of the Olympics being played was on the big and wide plains of Olympia in ancient Greece in 776 B.C. These games were played in honor of their prime Greek God Zeus and it featured events such as running and wrestling. These games lasted for an entire day, then in 472 B.C. new games were added and the event was extended to five days. Olympics today have drawn a lot of inspiration from this rich heritage. This remains one of the most popular inventions by the Greek people used today.

Money

The concept of money is considered as one of the greatest discoveries in the history of mankind. Even before the barter services were introduced in ancient India, a part of ancient Greek people known as the Lydians were using circular metal pieces, the ancient Greek coins for trade which credits the Greeks with the discovery of money.

Research has shown that maps in the western literature were first produced in 6200 B.C. The first Greek scholar to invent a geographical map was Anaximander (610-546 BC) and the concept of longitude and latitude was introduced by a Greek geographer called Dikaiarch (350-290 BC). Maps are one of the most ancient Greek inventions that are used today.

Thermometer

Historians claim that ancient Greeks of Alexandria knew that when air is heated it expands and Philo of Byzantium who was alive when Christ was born invented the thermoscope which had a similar concept like Galileo’s air thermometer but it was Galileo who put the scale besides the tube and converted the device into a scientific instrument which distinguishes between temperature and heat.

Steam Engine

Heron, also known as hero, an ancient Greek engineer who lived during the first century AD invented the steam engine. He made it as a toy and named it “aeolipile”. The steam was generated in a pot filled with water which was covered and placed on fire the pot was connected with two tubes which collected the steam and allowed it to collect into a ball of metal. The metallic ball had two outlets from where the steam was released. As the steam passed through these tubes the metal ball rotated. In 1698, taking inspiration from Heron’s steam engine, Thomas Savery built it once again.

Mathematics

“The square of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides” this is the world-famous Pythagoras theorem proposed by the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras (582-500 BC). This theorem was a major benchmark in the fields of mathematics, geometry and astronomy. Pythagoras’s teacher, mathematician Thales discovered the first mathematical deductions and developed the science of irrational numbers and axiomatic theory. The first book ever written on geometry was written by a Greek mathematician Euclid in 300 B.C.

Hippocratic Oath

Greek physician Hippocrates (460-377 BC), also known as the father of modern medicine, wrote the world-famous “Hippocratic Oath”. This oath prohibited doctors from performing abortions and unnecessary surgeries and stops them from having any sexual relations with their patients. According to the oath any private information divulged to the doctors should be secretive. This oath was a compulsion to all doctors till 1948 until the World Medical Association banned it and produced a new restatement called the ‘Declaration of Geneva’.

Medicine

George Papanicolaou (1883-1962), a Greek American doctor first detected cervical cancer in 1943 by a gynecological procedure known as the Pap Smear test which was named after him.

Theater and Music

The ancient Greeks developed theater to portray qualities such as patriotism, respect to their holy Gods, equality and hospitality thus instilling these values in their children. This became a ritual in 6 B.C. when they started performing in groups to educate people. Thespsis (a performer) while performing with the group broke away and started performing solo thus giving birth to solo performances. Ancient Greeks were ardent followers of art. In 468 B.C. a writer, called Sophocles created the greatest masterpiece of tragedy in Greek history Odepius Rex. Ancient Greeks had a special place for music in their lives. They invented musical instruments such as Pan Pipes which laid the foundations of the invention of the modern flute. Greece’s greatest music composer Michael Theodorakis has won global acclaim with his masterpieces like Epiphania and Zorba.

Archimedes Screw

The Greek born mathematician Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) invented an ingenious water pump which is globally known as the Archimedes Screw. It consists of a tube looped around a rod, set at an angle with the bottom end in water. It had a handle at the top. When the handle is rotated, the entire device turns up and water is collected in the tube, which is transported upwards. Archimedes also invented levers in around 260 B.C. Many of our basic instruments like tongs, nutcracker and scissors are based on his principles.

Astronomy

The Greeks also made valuable contributions to the field of astronomy. They developed astrolabe, an instrument used to decide the position of the sun and the stars in the sky. It was first used in 200 BC by astronomers in Greece.

Umbrella

The Greeks used wood or big bones of animals to protect themselves from the sun or rain. Later they started using big leaves thus laying the basis of inventing an umbrella. Finally in 1852 Samuel Fox an English inventor invented steel umbrella which we use today.

Alarm Clock

Yes, it was the ancient Greeks that came up with the idea of an alarm clock. The alarm clock was created in 200 BC by Ctesibius (285 to 222 BC). The traditional alarm clock was made with a dial and a pointer for the time and it had an alarm system that would drop pebbles into a gong at a pre-set time.


Which country traces its roots back to the oldest civilization? - History

Teribe Indigenous Cultural Association TÉRRABA

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

Images from a handmade history book tell the story of the Térraba culture

OVERVIEW

The Térraba are a warrior people that trace its roots back to the pre-Colombian Chiriquí civilization that dominated Costa Rica. When the Spanish Conquistadors arrived in the early 1500s, they found Costa Rica to be a harsh country with few resources to exploit. In comparison to other pre-colonial civilizations, there were few indigenous to use for labor.

The Spanish brought Catholicism and smallpox, and many tribes were not able to survive both. Despite Spanish influence, the Térraba can trace their history back to specific events as early as the 1600s. The Térraba were able to maintain their culture, traditions and language in spite of the Spanish occupation and Catholic influence. They have recorded an extensive oral history to preserve it for future generations.

The Chiriquí civilization dates back 10,000 years with evidence of caves, rock shelters, and stationary camps that correspond with hunter-gatherer groups. The social and cultural development started then and was at its peak in 600 A.D. until the arrival of the Spaniards at the beginning of the 16th century.

The government has amended and reduced their rights – or ignored them entirely – in the years since implementing the indigenous laws. The Diquís Hydroelectric Project and the trouble in the education system represent the ongoing struggles the Térraba have for rights guaranteed by law.

TIMELINE

The Térraba participated with the indigenous groups Ateos, Viceitas and Cabecares in the rebellion that destroyed Santiago of Salamanca.

Missionaries led by Fray Pablo de Rebullida and the Spanish military moved part of the Térraba population to the southwestern region of Costa Rica, near Boruca and the Térraba River. The town, San Francisco de Térraba, was founded in 1689. Its name was later shortened to Térraba.

The northern Indians attacked San Francisco de Térraba, burning it, killing the men and capturing the women, a day after an attack on Cabagra, another local indigenous group. After the massacre, Térraba only had 300 people left.

1845-1848

After a church was burned, the Catholic priests decided that reducing the territory would conserve and protect the population. Within several years Pauline priests arrived to take over the Térraba community, but brought smallpox. The epidemic decimated the population.

1956-1977

Legislation to establish and protect the indigenous territories gave the Térraba the inalienable right to their traditional land, the use of their resources and some autonomy in self-governance.

1970s

Costa Rica began promoting clearing forests to convert them to agricultural and pastoral lands. Much of the Térraba’s forest was lost.

The Térraba lost the right to own the minerals beneath the soil on their own land, under a new mining law.

Costa Rica recognized indigenous languages in its constitution.

Indigenous communities began protesting against the Diquís Hydroelectric Project, which was then known as the Boruca Hydroelectric Project.

The title to the territory was amended and reduced without asking the Térraba, fragmenting the territory into blocks.

Diquís project workers moved to the region and started work without consulting the Térraba community.

On Oct. 6, more than 150 Térraba and others marched along the inter-American highway to demand respect for their right to participate in decisions involving their lands. They marched all the way to the town of Buenos Aires, more than 8 miles (13 kilometers) from Térraba territory. ICE employees filmed and shouted at them in Buenos Aires, causing a confrontation that required police intervention.

The Costa Rican Electricity Institute (Instituto Costaricense de Electricidad – ICE) removed their equipment and suspended work in Térraba territory.

After feeling that they still weren’t being heard, the Térraba occupied the local school to demand change. The Térraba wanted the right to influence how the students are taught about the culture, and how the language is taught in the schoo


Watch the video: Ο Μύθος του χρυσού Τρίποδα, οι Επτά Σοφοί και ο μυστικός αριθμός 7 Γιώργος Λαθύρης - Ιαλυσσός