Gregor FDB-1

Gregor FDB-1



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Gregor FDB-1

The Gregor FBD-1 was produced in Canada in 1938, at a point when the new monoplane fighters had yet to prove themselves in combat. Michael Gregor, its designer, was not alone in believing that biplane fighters would soon make a return to the front line, but he was quickly proved wrong.


Michael Gregor (aircraft engineer)

Left-to-right: George Ayde, Can-Car representative David Boyd and designer Michael Gregor standing at a FDB-1 fighter.

Michael Gregor, born Mikheil Grigorashvili (Georgian language: მიხეილ გრიგორაშვილი ) or Mikhail Leontyevich Grigorashvili (Russian: Михаил Леонтьевич Григорашвили ) (1888 – 1953) was an aircraft engineer of Georgian origin, one of the pioneering aviators in the Russian Empire, the United States, and Canada. Ώ]


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the Gregor fdb-1 was in my opinion Canada's second greatest aircraft after the avro arrow. it was a biplane from 1937, which has potential to beat the spitfire. it had better climbrate, manoeuvrability, and if it had been fitted with the 1200 up engine a speed of 560 kmh. armament was 2 .50s and 2 160 lb bombs. it has been labeled as the cleanest biplane fighter of all time. but, we in Canada have a trend of millions great designs, as with the arrow, and so only an unarmed prototype ever flew. this was denied export sales to Spain as well, eventually dying in a fire in the hangar it's been in since 1941 in 1945. VTOL up for gear, enjoy!


Gregor Welded Boats

In 1964, Gregor Boat Company opened for business when it introduced an all-welded aluminum boat, constructed utilizing the THERMOTROL Welding System a patented process created by George Gregory. That 13’ boat was evolutionary and set a new standard of quality. The Standard of Excellence. Today, all-welded boats are considered the hallmark of a better boat. But welding alone does not mean you are getting a superior boat. A superior boat is a well designed boat, an engineered boat, a Thermotrol welded Gregor boat.

Today, as in in the beginning, each new model is thoughtfully designed and precisely engineered for maximum performance, low maintenance, durability, good looks and your safety. The designs and production procedures are continually scrutinized so that you receive the best possible. Our graduate engineering staff, combined with 50 years of designing and building aluminum boats, is your assurance of quality, craftsmanship, design excellence and superior engineering.

How do you identify a quality boat?

THE STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE

Any boat is only as good as the company that stands behind it. Gregor Boat Company has been building the highest quality aluminum boats for 40 years. We are fully committed to the marine industry and to you, our customer. Ask a Gregor owner. Check with several local boat shops. Talk to people who know boats. They will tell you that the finest aluminum boats built are built by Gregor.

THERMOTROL WELDING PROCESS

The superiority of welded construction is evidenced by the grow-ing number of welded boats available to the consumer today. But just welding is not enough, use of the Thermotrol Welding Process, reduces stresses which continue to perplex other welded boat manufacturers. Only Gregor boat can give you a consistently smooth, solid, one-piece unitized hull from gun’le to gun’le and stem to stern.

QUALITY CONTROL

We have a commitment to build the highest quality aluminum boat available. By using a formal quality control program this commitment is assured. Prior to production each new model is fully tested for proper performance, endurance and appearance. We use only the highest quality material. High standards are also set for the production process. Our quality control program requires each boat to be inspected at every stage of production. The pride of our craftsman is evident in every boat we build. This means that you, as a Gregor boat owner, receive the finest quality product available.


Experiments and Theories

Around 1854, Mendel began to research the transmission of hereditary traits in plant hybrids. At the time of Mendel’s studies, it was a generally accepted fact that the hereditary traits of the offspring of any species were merely the diluted blending of whatever traits were present in the “parents.” It was also commonly accepted that, over generations, a hybrid would revert to its original form, the implication of which suggested that a hybrid could not create new forms. However, the results of such studies were often skewed by the relatively short period of time during which the experiments were conducted, whereas Mendel’s research continued over as many as eight years (between 1856 and 1863), and involved tens of thousands of individual plants.

Mendel chose to use peas for his experiments due to their many distinct varieties, and because offspring could be quickly and easily produced. He cross-fertilized pea plants that had clearly opposite characteristics—tall with short, smooth with wrinkled, those containing green seeds with those containing yellow seeds, etc.𠅊nd, after analyzing his results, reached two of his most important conclusions: the Law of Segregation, which established that there are dominant and recessive traits passed on randomly from parents to offspring (and provided an alternative to blending inheritance, the dominant theory of the time), and the Law of Independent Assortment, which established that traits were passed on independently of other traits from parent to offspring. He also proposed that this heredity followed basic statistical laws. Though Mendel’s experiments had been conducted with pea plants, he put forth the theory that all living things had such traits.

In 1865, Mendel delivered two lectures on his findings to the Natural Science Society in Brno, who published the results of his studies in their journal the following year, under the title Experiments on Plant Hybrids. Mendel did little to promote his work, however, and the few references to his work from that time period indicated that much of it had been misunderstood. It was generally thought that Mendel had shown only what was already commonly known at the time—that hybrids eventually revert to their original form. The importance of variability and its evolutionary implications were largely overlooked. Furthermore, Mendel&aposs findings were not viewed as being generally applicable, even by Mendel himself, who surmised that they only applied to certain species or types of traits. Of course, his system eventually proved to be of general application and is one of the foundational principles of biology.


Gregor FDB-1 - History

Canadian Car & Foundry Gregor FDB-1

Data current to 14 April 2021.

(WW2Aircraft.net Photo)

The Gregor was a 1938 single-engine biplane fighter. The Gregor FDB-1's model designation stood for F ighter D ive B omber indicating its intended roles. Only one built. The FDB-1 was one of the most advanced biplane fighters of its time. It incorporated many of the features standard on the new monoplanes. Its airframe was of all-metal construction with flush riveting. The shape was aerodynamically clean, and enhanced by a shatter-proof sliding canopy. The main undercarriage was retractable, a novelty for a biplane. The pilot sitting in an adjustable seat had improved forward vision because of the Gregor’s gull-wing design. The aircraft was powered by a 750 hp Twin Wasp Junior radial engine, and it was armed with two .50 cal machine-guns and two 116 pound bombs. Despite being an advanced and innovative design, incorporating all-metal construction with flush riveting, retractable undercarriage and a sleek shape, the FDB-1 was overtaken by events and, after being unable to find a buyer, was lost in a fire in 1945.

(Edmon Cardinal Photo)

Gregor FDB-1, Reg. No. CF-BMB, in its gray paint and striped vertical stabilizer.

(Thunder Bay Historical Society Photo)

CCF Gregor FDB-1 under construction in the Canadian Car and Foundry factory at Fort William. This aircraft was of all-metal construction, and came equipped with a retractable undercarriage, flush riveting and had a gull wing shape in the upper wing. It had a modern monocoque shell construction similar to the Spitfire and the Messerschmitt Bf-109.

(Thunder Bay Historical Society Photo)

CCF Gregor FDB-1 being prepared for engine tests at Bishopsfield, Fort William (now Thunder Bay), Ontario, January 1939.

(Johan Visschedijk Collection Photo, via 1000aircraftphotos.com)

The only Canadian Car and Foundry-built Gregor FDB-1 is rolled out of the Fort William factory on a cold and clear December day in 1938 for a photo op and engine run. The aircraft is not yet been fitted with its massive bare metal spinner of the final design.

(CCF Photo)

(Bzuk Photo)

George Adye about to start the FDB-1 for the first time at the roll-out on 17 December 1938 at Bishop's Field, Fort William. Adye was the Canadian Car and Foundry factory test pilot. On this December day he would just run up the engine, but he would be the first to fly the Gregor FDB-1 at CCF's factory in St. Hubert near Montreal in February, 1939.

(CCF Photo)

The large propellor on the FDB-1 is readily apparent in this pjhoto.

(airwar.ru Photo)

The large perspex canopy of the FDB-1 is clearly shown in this image from the December 1938 roll-out. The canopy gave an excellent field of vision in all directions, except for the view forward where the high mounted gull-style wing impeded view.

(CASM Photo)

Rear view of the CCF Gregor FDB-1, with the pilot's parachute resting on the lower wing on the left. The fighter is sitting at the edge of a hardstand outside a hangar at Roosevelt Field, Long Island, New York. Its vertical stabilizer carries the FDB-1 and white stripes over its grey paint scheme. A Gulf Oil fuel bowser can just be seen forward of the starboard wings with an attendant standing on a step ladder to assist the refueling.

(Bzuk Photo)

CCF Gregor FDB-1, Reg. No. CFBMB, with Executives from Canadian Car and Foundry at Bishop's Field Fort William (now Thunder Bay) during the aircraft's first engine run ups. Left to right: test pilot George Adye, Canadian Car and Foundry representative David Boyd (the Fort William Factory Manager) and the aircraft designer, Michael Gregor, in front of the fighter which has been painted in all over semi-gloss grey.

(fliegerweb.com Photo)

CCF Gregor FDB-1, Reg. No. CFBMB, in flight test over Montreal.

(CCF Photo)


Early Life and Education

Johann Mendel was born in 1822 in the Austrian Empire to Anton Mendel and Rosine Schwirtlich. He was the only boy in the family and worked on the family farm with his older sister Veronica and his younger sister Theresia. Mendel took an interest in gardening and beekeeping as he grew up.

As a young boy, Mendel attended school in Opava. He went on to the University of Olomouc after graduating, where he studied many disciplines, including physics and philosophy. He attended the University from 1840 to 1843 and was forced to take a year off due to illness. In 1843, he followed his calling into the priesthood and entered the Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno.


Canadian Car & Foundry

Canadian Car and Foundry (CC&F) also variously known as “Canadian Car & Foundry,” or more familiarly as “Can Car,” manufactured buses, railroad rolling stock and later aircraft for the Canadian market. CC&F history goes back to 1897, but the main company was established in 1909 from an amalgamation of several companies and later became part of Hawker Siddeley Canada through the purchase by A.V. Roe Canada in 1957.

Canadian Car & Foundry (CC&F) was established in 1909 in Montreal as the result of an amalgamation of three companies. In 1911 the CC&F Board of Directors recognized that the company could improve its efficiency if they were able to produce their own steel castings, a component that was becoming common to all their products. They purchased Montreal Steel Works Limited at Longue Pointe, QC, the largest producer of steel castings in Canada, and the Ontario Iron & Steel Company, Ltd. at Welland, which included both a steel foundry and a rolling mill.

Buses were produced at Fort William, Ontario and railcars in Montreal and Amherst. Streetcars were manufactured between 1897 to 1913, however the company focused exclusively on rebuilding existing streetcars after 1913.
A few years later, CC&F acquired the assets of Pratt & Letchworth, a Brantford, ON, rail car manufacturer. In the latter part of World War I, the expanding company opened a new plant in Fort William (now Thunder Bay) to manufacture rail cars and ships which included the French minesweepers Inkerman and Cerisoles which were both lost in Lake Superior the Amherst plant started by Rhodes & Curry in Amherst was closed in 1931. In an attempt to enter the aviation market, CC&F produced a small series of Grumman fighter aircraft under licence and developed an unsuccessful, indigenous-designed fighter aircraft, the Gregor FDB-1.

The Second World War

By 1939, with war on the horizon, Canadian Car & Foundry and its Chief Engineer, Elsie MacGill, were contracted by the Royal Air Force to produce the Hawker Hurricane. Refinements introduced by MacGill on the Hurricane included skis and de-icing gear. When the production of the Hurricane was complete in 1943, CC&F’s workforce of 4,500 (half of them women) had built over 1,400 aircraft, about 10% of all Hurricanes built.

As male enlistment increased during the war, the Canadian Car & Foundry hired and trained a greater number of female employees. Representing the wartime contributions of women who left traditional ‘female’ occupations to work in the public sphere, the female workers in the factory took on welding, precision drilling, riveting, sub-assembly of instruments and inspection. These technical contributions and changes in labour trends were guided in part by the aeronautical engineer Elizabeth Muriel Gregory ‘Elsie’ MacGill, a person of national historic significance, who oversaw the company’s first original design for the Hawker Hurricane. The period saw women gain valuable skills and confidence, earn financial independence, and helped to demonstrate that women could do non-traditional jobs.

North American AT-6 Texan/Harvard

Following the success of the Hurricane contract, CC&F sought out and received a production order for the troublesome Curtiss SB2C Helldiver. Eventually, 834 Helldivers were produced by CC&F in various versions from SBW-1, SBW-1B, SBW-3,SBW-4E and SBW-5. Some of the Curtiss divebombers were sent directly to the Royal Navy under Lend-Lease arrangements.

CC&F also built the North American AT-6 Texan/Harvard under licence, many of the aircraft being supplied to European air forces to train post war military pilots. In 1944, the Canadian Car & Foundry built a revolutionary new aircraft in its Montreal shops – the Burnelli CBY-3, also called the Loadmaster. There were two examples built of an aerofoil-fuselage design originally developed by Vincent J. Burnelli. The CBY-3 was never to enter full-scale production and was cancelled less than one year later.

During World War Two C.D. Howe, Minister of Supply and Munitions, was pivotal in expanding the Canadian aviation industry. Here are a few pictures of a visit to the Canadian Car and Foundry factory in Fort William, Ontario. Forget all the people and just enjoy the Hurricanes. (Photos courtesy of the National Film Board of Canada/Library and Archives Canada.)

By the time war broke out, the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) had nineteen Hurricane Mk Is on strength, these having been the subject of an order (for twenty) placed before hostilities commenced. After negotiations a further Mk I (L1848) was sent by Hawker Aircraft to Canadian Car & Foundry (CC&F) along with complete plans on microfilm for production of Hurricane Mk Is powered by British Merlin III engines shipped from England to Canada. Since the Hurricane Mk I was likely to continue development, Hawker requested that an adequate gap in Mark Numbers be left to allow for further British designations, and consequently CC&F produced Hurricanes beginning with the Mark X designation. Canadian production went so well that the first Canadian produced Hurricane Mk I was delivered only a year after the pattern aircraft was shipped.

Post War Development

After the Second World War, the CC&F returned to its roots as a rail car manufacturer. They also made a successful leap into the streetcar business, supplying Montreal, Toronto, Regina, Calgary, Vancouver, Edmonton, and the Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo with various types of streetcars.

The company concluded a licensing agreement with ACF-Brill (the successor to J. G. Brill) in 1944 to manufacture and sell throughout Canada buses and trolley coaches of ACF-Brill design as Canadian Car-Brill, in later years often written “CCF-Brill”, for short. CC&F built 1,114 trolley buses and a few thousand buses under the name. Trolleybus production ended in 1954 Edmonton Transit System’s No. 202, a 1954 CCF-Brill T48A, was the very last Brill trolleybus built for any city.

In 1957, wishing to diversify, the British Hawker Siddeley Group acquired CC&F through its Canadian subsidiary, A.V. Roe Canada Ltd.. In 1962, A.V. Roe Canada was dissolved and its assets became part of Hawker Siddeley Canada. During the 1970s they introduced the BiLevel Coach heavy railway passenger car, which would go on to great success.

Heritage Value

Canadian Car & Foundry was designated a national historic site of Canada in 2008 because:- here, at the main plant of Canada’s largest aircraft manufacturer during the Second World War, thousands of men and women expertly constructed 1, 451 Hawker Hurricanes for the British Royal Air Force and the Royal Canadian Air Force, and 835 Curtiss Helldivers for the American Navy, thereby expanding the Allied forces’ air strength ten percent of the world’s production of the reliable and long-serving Hurricane, an aircraft that played a pivotal role in winning the Battle of Britain, were built here


Introduction to the 2002 Electronic Edition

Original copies of the ‘History of The Clan Gregor’ are scarce and valuable and there has been a long-standing demand for a reprint. As the original ran to 965 pages in two quarto volumes, excluding the index, a reprint was likely to prove very costly and no publisher could be found to take on the venture. It has therefore been decided that the only viable method of making copies available to researchers was via the internet, a method of distribution which would have been just as inconceivable to Amelia as it would have been to Alasdair Roy of Glenstrae or Rob Roy. An original copy has been electronically scanned and edited to produce this new edition. The scanning process is inevitably error-prone. Many hours have been spent in proof-reading but it is inevitable that some errors have been missed. It should be remembered that the great majority of the text is taken verbatim from 16th to the 18th century documents. As far as possible these documents have been rendered exactly as Amelia had them, which in turn, was exactly as she took them from her sources. Spelling, punctuation and grammar could be very variable in that period. This clearly makes proof-reading of the scanned documents difficult. As far as possible the original pagination has been retained, however, the index has not been included.

There has been debate within the Clan Gregor Society as to whether there should be significant editing of the original text. The consensus has been that the entire original publication should be made available but with a serious warning about the quality of the material within. It is necessary to warn readers that Amelia was not a historian and adopted a very partial standpoint to her material. Her principal sources were the manuscript ‘Chartulary of Clan Gregor’ (see below), and Douglas’s Baronage of Scotland. Extensive quotations are also included from the various histories of other families, such as Atholl, Breadalbane, Menzies and Colquhoun.

The line of the Glenstrae chiefs of Clan Gregor died out at the start of the 18th century. With no documentary proof as to the seniority of the surviving families, it was only through disputed oral tradition that a new chiefly lineage could be found. Late in the 18th century, John Murray, representative of the Glencarnaig family returned from India with a considerable fortune. He was created first Baronet MacGregor and purchased land in the Balquhidder area. He was benevolent towards less fortunate clansmen and, in 1787 was elected chief. In 1822, his son, Sir Evan MacGregor was reaffirmed by election as the second chief of this line. The chiefship has continued in this family to the present Sir Gregor MacGregor. There are no modern pretenders to the honour of clan chief and absolutely no suggestion by this editor that the election by a considerable number of MacGregors was in any way suspect or invalid. However, the right of descent of the Glencarnaig family is impossible to prove at this remove.

At the request and expense of Sir Evan Murray MacGregor, the Rev. William MacGregor Stirling and Professor Donald Gregory compiled, between 1820 and 1833, what has become known as the ‘Chartulary of Clan Gregor’. It comprises two large folio volumes of hand-written extracts from state and private papers referring to Clan Gregor. These become particularly detailed from the mid 16th century. The death of both researchers followed by Sir Evan’s put a stop on publication until the History, compiled by Amelia, the daughter of Sir Evan, in two volumes in 1898 and 1901.

Undoubtedly, Amelia’s History was primarily intended to prove the seniority of her family. The arguments are very partial and some decidedly thin logic has been asserted as obvious truth. On the other side, the claims of other lineages are presented with disparaging comments. It does not appear to the present editor (a descendant of Glengyle) that on the basis of the available evidence the Glengyle family had any better claim to the chiefship. However, Amelia consistently used language that denigrated members the Glengyle family. It does appear that considerable antipathy existed between these two families in the 18th century. In order to enhance the claim of the descendants of Duncan Ladasach, MacGregor Stirling asserted, without any real evidence, that the Glenstrae line had illegally usurped the chiefship on the death of Eoin dubh in 1519.

The ‘Chartulary’ represents an exceptionally valuable collection of references to the clan in the public records of Scotland. Amelia included the entire manuscript, more or less in date sequence. This material is of considerable historical value. Unfortunately the same cannot be said for the “Baronage”, which has been described by historian, Martin MacGregor as a ‘piece of sustained fiction marred only by the occasional intrusion of fact’. The “Baronage” account was written by Duncan Murray of Glencarnaig, the uncle of Sir John Murray. My advice, as editor, is to treat anything attributed to the “Baronage” with extreme caution, particularly with regard to the early genealogy of the clan which cannot be corroborated with the evidence in extant early documents. It is hoped that one day, Martin MacGregor’s thesis, based on actual documentary evidence, on the history of the Clan up to 1571 will be published, but the present editor has made extensive use of the thesis in his own research into the affairs of the clan between 1586 and 1613.

Various genealogies are included. The advice has to be: treat these with caution, especially with regard to the period before 1550. In particular, the lineage of ‘Gregor Aulin’ in the ‘Baronage’ is highly suspect.

The Clan Gregor derive from its eponym Gregor or Griogar who lived roughly between 1300 and 1360. Before him, there was no ‘Clan Gregor’! The name ‘MacGregor’ appears on record for the first time with his grandson Eoin Dubh at the end of the 14th century. Martin MacGregor’s work on the genealogies in the ‘Book of the Dean of Lismore’ suggest that Gregor’s forebears were members of a Clann Ailpein in the Glenorchy/Lorn area of Argyll. Its eponym, Ailpen lived
in the first half of the 13th century. Before him there is only oral tradition of royal descent. Confusion between the 13th century Ailpen and the 9th century dark age kings Alpin and Giric has led to some very fanciful writing over the years. Suffice it to say at the moment, that scientific
DNA evidence points towards the Clan Gregor being definitely Dalriadic Scots centred on Argyll and it may be, as the test programme continues that our male-line descent from the Dalriadic kings will be confirmed.


Unknown Aircraft that could have been great .

And with an engine swap,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curtiss-Wright_XP-55_Ascender
but give it either the original engine or perhaps the Double Wasp?

Admiral Beez

As a replacement for the F-111/EF-111 and the F-15E

Some Bloke

With 260 mph and two 50 cal. mgs, the FDB-1 would have been one of the best biplane fighters of the late 1930s, equal to the Gloster Gladiator, Grumman F3F, Polikarpov I-153 and FIAT CR.42 Falco, while superior to the Kawasaki Ki-10 and Arado Ar 68.

Too bad forward visibility is so bad, otherwise a FAA fighter could be possible.

Redlightning

Gudestein

Fastmongrel

Admiral Beez

Dayton Kitchens

I think it is worth discussing.

At any rate the F-23 mainly failed due to industrial politics and the fact that the F-22 looked so much like the USAFs beloved F-15 Eagle.

But the F-23 was faster, stealthier and overall probably quite superior to the F-22

The Polikarpov VIT
A fast twin engined ground attack aircraft armed with two HV 37mm it could have been the worlds first "tank buster"
Optimized for "Deep Battle" operational concepts, it was canceled after the purges.

A very fast interceptor that came too late.

Just Leo

Just Leo

The SAI Ambrosini S.207 was perhaps the best fighter of its class. Two thousand were ordered, no wait a minute. Let's make it better. OOps, the war's over. Never thought of making two thousand and making it better at the same time.

Lost Freeway

CalBear

It was about 10% faster, and had the ventral gun. Range with a combat load was close to identical (510 mile combat radius vs. 500 for the TBF).

SHOULD be flying from Carriers today, along with the SuperTom 21.

Usili

CalBear

REALLY false assumption there. Namely that the Bug, even the SuperBug can do the job as well as the Intruder. They can't. Not on the Best Day they ever had. Intruder had double+ the range, 50% greater payload, and was nearly as fast as an F-18 when both aircraft are carrying bombs (the Bug/SuperBug are subsonic while in bomber mode).

Replacing the Intruder with a never happened design was one of the Big Four acts of stupidity by Naval Air.

The other were dumping the A7 for the original F-18A/B (60% more range and 20% more bomb load)

Dumping the Super Tomcat for the F-18 E/F

and. drumroll please. The stupidest action of them all

Removing the S3 Viking from the fleet and replacing them with NOTHING. the world is now full over very good SSK and the USN has nothing except helos to look for them. This is a decision that ranks right up with the fools who green lit the Alaska class.

Valid points. Of course I sort of think that if you are putting $9-12 Billion into an asset you should 1) get your money's worth & 2) keep pesky folks with silkworms and SSGN from poking holes in them.

It is also worth keeping in mind that Russia never went away. It changed flags and some initials. Just ask Vladimir Vladimirovich.


Watch the video: The CCu0026F FDB-1; When People Dont Want to See the Writing on the Wall